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Assessment of Communication Disorders in Children
Resources and Protocols

Second Edition

M. N. Hegde, PhD, Frances Pomaville, MA

Details

560 pages, Illustrated (B/W), Softcover, 8.5 x 11"
Included Media: CD
ISBN13: 978-1-59756-487-8
Release date: 08/30/2012

$99.95

Overview

This second edition of a high-demand text offers a unique combination of scholarly information, invaluable resources, and time-saving protocols on assessment of communication disorders in children.

Most resource books offer limited research and scholarly information, thus making them unsuitable as textbooks for academic courses on assessment and diagnosis. Similarly, most traditional textbooks do not include practical, easy-to-use, and time-saving resources and protocols that the practicing clinicians can readily use during assessment sessions. By combining the strengths of traditional textbooks and newer assessment resources and protocols, this one-of-a kind book offers a single, comprehensive source that is suitable as a textbook and useful as a practical clinical resource.

While combining scholarly information needed for academic courses and practical tools for clinical assessment, this innovative book:

  • Covers the full range of communication disorders in children, including nonverbal or minimally verbal children
  • Includes an extensive discussion of issues in using standardized tests along with detailed information on psychometric principles
  • Offers a detailed discussion of alternative assessment approaches that minimize the problems inherent to standardized tests
  • Describes a new, comprehensive, and integrated assessment approach that derives its strengths from the traditional as well as several alternative approaches
  • Provides an updated and thorough discussion of multicultural issues in assessing communication disorders in children
  • Integrates multicultural assessment procedures into the assessment protocols offered for all communication disorders
  • Contains two chapters for each disorder: one on resources that offers scholarly and research background on the disorder and one on resources that describe practical procedures and protocols that save preparation time and effort for the clinician and makes it possible to use as a textbook as well as a clinical resource book

Reviews

  • Lynn Dangerfield, Principal Speech-Language Therapist, Solent NHS Trust, Speech & Language Therapy in Practice, (Winter 2011):
    "This American text provides a comprehensive set of resources and protocols for the assessment of a range of acquired communication disorders: aphasia, dysarthria, dyspraxia, dementia, fluency and voice. There are also chapters describing right hemisphere syndrome and traumatic brain injury. Definitions and key characteristics of each of these disorders are provided, albeit quite superficially, with key questions for case history taking and a summary of standardised assessment tools where relevant. The focus is primarily upon the medical model of communication disorders, with minimal mention of the social impact of acquired communication disorders, with minimal mention of the social impact of acquired communication disorders, now an integral part of care pathways in UK. The text is reasonably priced and includes a CD containing all the assessment and protocol resources, which can be modified by individual clinicians. This is very useful given the American nature of the text. I would recommend this resource to a student or newly qualified clinician. It is easy to dip into to select a relevant clinical tool for day to day practice. [Review refers to First Edition]"

  • Rachel Saffo, MS, CCC-SLP, Florida State University College of Communication, Doody's Review Service, (Winter 2011):
    "...A comprehensive collection of scholarly and background information... Proposes a fresh perspective on multifaceted issues, such as culturally and linguistically diverse populations. [Review refers to First Edition]"

  • Bob Roza, MS, CCC-SLP, Advance for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists, (April 2009):
    "'''REVIEW OF THE FIRST EDITION''' ''Assessment of Communication Disorders in Children: Resources and Protocols'' is a great time-saving resource that combines scholarly information and resources and protocols to facilitate an accurate assessment of communication disorders in children. Authors M.N. Hegde, PhD, and Frances Pomaville, MA, combined the strengths of traditional textbooks with newer resources and protocols to produce a comprehensive volume suitable as both a textbook and a practical clinical resource. The book covers a full range of communication disorders. There is a section on nonverbal children, an extensive discussion on the use of standardized tests, and detailed information on psychometric principles. The authors discuss alternative assessment approaches, an integrated assessment blending traditional and alternative approaches, an update on multicultural issues, and resources and protocols for efficient assessment. They approach each communication area from the perspectives of resources and protocols. The resource chapter reviews scholarly information on assessment, offers research on normal skill development, summarizes etiologic information, and gives an overview of the assessment. One section is devoted to post-assessment counseling. Students and beginning clinicians can model the dialogue format of frequently asked questions and answers. In a chapter on literacy assessment, the authors delve into issues like emergent literacy, addressing assessment and skill acquisition. The protocol chapter provides practical information for making better assessments. An accompanying CD, compatible only with Microsoft, contains standard protocols that may be individualized and printed for clinical use. They are essential in assessing all children with communication disorders. Clinicians and instructors will enjoy the time-saving element of this well-written book."

  • #, Doody's, (2013):
    ""Named to Doody's Core Titles in the Health Sciences 2013 list""

  • Tracey Marsh, Leeds Metropolitan University, (2013):
    "I am delighted with this text, and will be able to make excellent use of it in my teaching...I am finding [it] invaluable"

  • Stephen Oller, Texas A&M University- Kingsville, (2013):
    "Itís the best text currently available on the subject."

  • Mary Kay Bradley, Nazareth University, (2013):
    "The text is a good introduction to the topic."

Audience

Primary Subject: Speech-Language Pathology / Pediatrics
Secondary Subject: Speech-Language Pathology / General
Audience Level: Academic

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Creating Child-Specific Assessment Packages with Protocols on the CD xiii

Part I. Foundations of Assessment 1

Chapter 1. Assessment in Speech-Language Pathology 3
Assessment, Evaluation, and Diagnosis 4
Written Case History 6
The Initial Clinical Interview 8
Hearing Screening 10
Orofacial Examination 10
Diadochokinetic Tasks 11
Speech-Language Sample 11
Standardized Assessment Instruments 12
Alternative and Integrated Assessment Procedures 12
Assessment of Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal Children 13
Assessment of Literacy Skills 13
Stimulability 13
Postassessment Counseling 14
Assessment Report 14

Chapter 2. Common Assessment Protocols 17
Child Case History Protocol 19
Developmental Milestones from 0 to 4 Years of Age 24
Instructions for Conducting the Orofacial Examination: 27
Observations and Implications
Orofacial Examination and Hearing Screening Protocol 32
Diadochokinetic Assessment Protocol 35
Assessment Report Outline 36

Chapter 3. Standardized Assessment 43
Standardized and Norm-Referenced Tests 44
Test Construction 49
Reliability 51
Validity 54
Questionnaires and Developmental Inventories 58
Strengths of Standardized Tests 60
Limitations of Standardized Tests 62
Prudent Use of Standardized Tests 64
Assessment in a Multicultural Society 67

Chapter 4. Assessment of Ethnoculturally Diverse Children 69
Assessment in Ethnoculturally Diverse Societies 70
Can Speech-Language Assessment Be Culture-Free? 71
Limitations of Standardized Tests in Assessing Ethnoculturally Diverse Children 73
Assessment of African American Children 77
Assessment of Bilingual Children 88
Traditional and Alternative Assessment Approaches 105

Chapter 5. Alternative and Integrated Assessment Approaches 107
Behavioral Assessment 108
Criterion-Referenced and Client-Specific Assessment 120
Authentic Assessment 122
Dynamic Assessment 126
Portfolio Assessment 130
Efforts at Combining Different Approaches 135
A Comprehensive and Integrated Assessment Approach 136

Part II. A ssessment of Speech Sound Production 143

Chapter 6. Assessment of Speech Sound Production: Resources 145
Overview of Speech Sound Production 146
Speech Sounds and Their Acquisition 150
Phonologic Analysis of Speech Sounds 154
Speech Sound Disorders 158
Dysarthria Associated with Cerebral Palsy 162
Childhood Apraxia of Speech 164
Overview of Assessment of Speech Sound Production 165
Screening for Speech Sound Disorders 167
Standardized Tests of Articulation and Phonologic Skills 168
Spontaneous Speech Sample 170
Stimulability of Speech Sounds 173
Assessment of Speech Sound Production in Ethnoculturally Diverse Children 175
Analysis and Integration of Assessment Results 176
Diagnostic Criteria and Differential Diagnosis 178
Postassessment Counseling 180

Chapter 7. Assessment of Speech Sound Production: Protocols 185
Note on Common Protocols 186
Note on Specific Protocols 186
Interview Protocol 187
Speech Sample Analysis Protocol 189
Phonetic Inventory Analysis Protocol 192
Manner-Place-Voicing Analysis Protocol 193
Consonant Clusters Inventory Protocol 194
Phonologic Pattern Assessment Protocol 197
Speech Sound Stimulability Assessment Protocol 199
Childhood Apraxia of Speech Assessment Protocol 207
Dysarthric Speech Assessment Protocol 208
Selected Multicultural Assessment Protocols 209
African American English: Speech Sound Assessment Protocol 210
Asian American English: Speech Sound Assessment Protocol 213
Spanish-Influenced English: Speech Sound Assessment Protocol 215

Part III. A ssessment of Language Skills in Children 217

Chapter 8. Assessment of Language Skills in Children: Resources 219
Overview of Language 220
Overview of Verbal Behavior 231
Prevalence of Child Language Disorders 232
Overview of Child Language Disorders 232
Clinical Conditions Associated with Language Disorders 234
Specific Language Impairment 237
Factors Related to Language Disorders 239
Overview of Assessment of Child Language Disorders 240
Screening for Language Disorders 242
Language Sampling 242
Integrating Alternative Assessment Techniques 247
Assessment of Language Understanding 249
Assessment of Other Aspects of Communication 250
Standardized Language Diagnostic Tests 251
Assessment of Language Skills in Ethnoculturally Diverse Children 251
Analysis and Integration of Assessment Results 255
Differential Diagnosis of Child Language Disorders 258
Postassessment Counseling 259

Chapter 9. Assessment of Language Skills: Protocols 263
Note on Common Protocols 264
Note on Specific Protocols 264
Interview Protocol 265
Normal Language Assessment Protocol 270
Language Sample Transcription Protocol 277
Language Sample Analysis Protocol: Syntactic, Morphologic, 281
and Pragmatic Skills
Task-Specific Assessment Protocol for Basic Vocabulary 282
Task-Specific Assessment Protocol for Grammatic Morphemes 285
Task-Specific Assessment Protocol for Conversational Skills 289
Behavioral Assessment Protocol 292
Selected Multicultural Assessment Protocols 300
African American English (AAE): Language Assessment Protocol 301
Asian American English: Language Assessment Protocol 303
Spanish-Influenced English: Language Assessment Protocol 305

Part IV. A ssessment of Fluency 307

Chapter 10. Assessment of Fluency Disorders: Resources 309
Descriptions of Fluency 310
Measurement of Fluency 311
Disorders of Fluency 311
Stuttering 312
Ethnocultural Variables and Stuttering 314
Definition and Measurement of Stuttering 315
Additional Features of Stuttering 326
Cluttering 333
Analysis and Integration of Assessment Results 335
Differential Diagnosis of Fluency Disorders 335
Postassessment Counseling 337

Chapter 11. Assessment of Fluency Disorders: Protocols 341
Note on Common Protocols 342
Note on Specific Protocols 342
Interview Protocol 343
Dysfluency Measurement Protocol 348
Associated Motor Behaviors Assessment Protocol 349
Avoidance Behaviors Assessment Protocol 350
Cluttering Assessment Protocol 353

Part V. A ssessment of Voice 355

Chapter 12. Assessment of Voice: Resources 357
Prevalence of Voice Disorders in Children 358
Childrenís Voice Disorders 359
Etiologic Factors Associated with Voice Disorders 365
The Need for Medical Evaluation 373
Assessment of Voice Production 374
Instrumental Evaluation 375
Laryngeal Imaging 377
Clinical Assessment of Voice 378
Stimulability of Voice Production 385
Assessment of Voice in Ethnoculturally Diverse Children 386
Analysis and Integration of Assessment Results 387
Differential Diagnosis of Voice Disorders 388
Postassessment Counseling 390

Chapter 13. Assessment of Voice: Protocols 395
Note on Common Protocols 396
Note on Specific Protocols 396
Interview Protocol 397
Vocal Abuse and Misuse Inventory 400
Child Voice Evaluation Protocol 402
Resonance and Velopharyngeal Function Assessment Protocol 406
Voice Stimulability Assessment Protocol 409

Part VI. A ssessment of Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal Children 411

Chapter 14. Assessment of Nonverbal and Minimally 413
Verbal Children: Resources
An Overview of Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal Children 414
The Assessment Team 415
Assessment of Nonverbal or Minimally Verbal Children 419
Case History and Interview 419
Orofacial Examination and Hearing Screening 420
Standardized and Criterion-Referenced Instruments 420
Systematic Quantitative and Qualitative Observations of 423
Nonverbal Communication
Assessment of Receptive Language 426
Assessment of Verbalizations 427
Analysis and Integration of Assessment Results 427
Prognosis for Developing Verbal Communication 429
Postassessment Counseling 430

Chapter 15. Assessment of Nonverbal and Minimally 433
Verbal Children: Protocols
Note on Common Protocols 434
Note on Specific Protocols 434
Interview Protocol 435
Verbalizations of Nonverbal or Minimally Verbal Children: 440
Assessment Protocol
Nonverbal Expressive Communication: Qualitative and Quantitative 445
Assessment Protocol
Nonverbal Receptive Communication: Qualitative and Quantitative 451
Assessment Protocol
Interaction Between Communicative Partners and the Child: 456
Assessment Protocol

Chapter 16. Assessment for Augmentative and Alternative 459
Communication Systems
The Three Phases of AAC System Assessment 460
The Role of Speech-Language Pathologists 461
Resources for the Clinician 462
Historical Perspective 463
Revised Participation Model 464
Analysis and Integration of Assessment Results 476
Postassessment Counseling 477

Part VII. Literacy 481

Chapter 17. A Primer on Literacy Assessment 483
Language Disorders and Literacy Problems 484
Emergent Literacy 486
Emergent Literacy Skill Acquisition 488
Assessment of Emergent Literacy Skills 491
Assessment of Reading and Writing 498

References 507
Index 535


DVD Contents:'

  • Section 1- Common Assessment Protocols
    • Child Case History Protocol
    • Developmental Milestones from 0 to 4 Years of Age
    • Instructions for Conducting the Orofacial Examination: **:Observations and Implications
    • Orofacial Examination and Hearing Screening Protocol
    • Diadochokinetic Assessment Protocol
    • Assessment Report Outline

  • Section 2- Speech Assessment Protocols
    • Child Case History
    • Assessment of Speech Production: Interview Protocol
    • Orofacial Examination and Hearing Screening
    • Speech Sample Analysis Protocol
    • Phonetic Inventory Analysis Protocol
    • Manner-Place-Voicing Analysis Protocol
    • Consonant Clusters Inventory Protocol
    • Phonologic Process Protocol
    • Speech Sound Stimulability Assessment Protocol
    • Childhood Apraxia of Speech Assessment Protocol
    • Dysarthric Speech Assessment Protocol
    • Selected Multicultural Assessment Protocol
    • African American English: Speech Assessment Protocol
    • Asian American English: Speech Assessment Protocol
    • Spanish-Influenced English: Speech Assessment Protocol
    • Speech Assessment Report

  • Section 3- Language Assessment Protocols
    • Child Case History
    • Interview Protocol
    • Orofacial Examination and Hearing Screening
    • Normal Language Assessment Protocol
    • Language Sample Transcription Protocol
    • Language Sample Analysis Protocol: Syntactic, Morphologic, **:and Pragmatic Skills
    • Task-Specific Assessment Protocol for Basic Vocabulary
    • Task-Specific Assessment Protocol for Grammatic Morphemes
    • Task-Specific Assessment Protocol for Conversational Skills
    • Selected Multicultural Assessment Protocols
    • African American English: Language Assessment Protocol
    • Asian American English: Language Assessment Protocol
    • Spanish-Influenced English: Language Assessment Protocol
    • Language Assessment Report

  • Section 4- Fluency Assessment Protocols
    • Child Case History
    • Interview Protocol
    • Orofacial Examination and Hearing Screening
    • Dysfluency Measurement Protocol
    • Associated Motor Behaviors Assessment Protocol
    • Avoidance Behaviors Assessment Protocol
    • Cluttering Assessment Protocol
    • Neurogenic Stuttering Assessment Protocol
    • Fluency Assessment Report

  • Section 5- Voice Assessment of Protocols
    • Child Case History
    • Interview Protocol
    • Orofacial Examination and Hearing Screening
    • Vocal Abuse and Misuse Assessment Protocol
    • Child Voice Evaluation Protocol
    • Resonance and Velopharyngeal Function Assessment Protocol
    • Voice Stimulability Assessment Protocol
    • Voice Assessment Report

  • Section 6- Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal Children's *:Assessment Protocols
    • Child Case History
    • Assessment of Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal Children: **:Interview Protocol
    • Orofacial Examination and Hearing Screening
    • Verbalizations of Nonverbal or Minimally Verbal Children: **:Assessment Protocol
    • Nonverbal Expressive Communication: Qualitative and **:Quantitative Assessment Protocol
    • Nonverbal Receptive Communication: Qualitative and **:Quantitative Assessment Protocol
    • Interaction between Communicative Partners and the Child: **:Assessment Protocol
    • Assessment Report

About The Authors

M. N. Hegde, PhD

M. N. Hegde, PhD is Professor of Speech-Language Pathology in the Department of Communicative Disorders at California State University, Fresno. A highly regarded author in speech-language pathology, his books include leading texts in academic courses and valuable resources for clinicians. His books have been used in worldwide in speech-language pathology programs.


Frances Pomaville, MA

A speech-language pathologist for over 20 years, Frances Pomaville, MA, is a lecturer in the Communicative Disorders and Deaf Studies Department at California State University, Fresno. She teaches undergraduate and graduate level courses in the areas of diagnostic procedures, anatomy and physiology, fluency, voice, craniofacial anomalies, traumatic brain injury, and dysphagia. She also provides supervision to graduate students completing their clinical practicum. Prior to accepting a faculty position at California State University, Fresno, Ms. Pomaville was the Director of Clinical Services at San Joaquin Valley Rehabilitation Hospital. Prior to that she had extensive experience as a speech-language pathologist in private practice, acute care settings, and inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation settings. Ms. Pomaville has also worked with children in the public school setting as an itinerant speech-language pathologist, and she spent several years working with students in a special education program for deaf and hard of hearing children.

Ms. Pomaville is a registered mentor with the International Association of Laryngectomees (IAL), and served as the moderator for the Central California Lost Chord Club for over 10 years. She has presented multiple workshops for District 5 of the California Speech-Language-Hearing Association and for the local National Student Speech-Language-Hearing Association on such topics as laryngectomee rehabilitation, aphasia, brain injury rehabilitation, and dysphagia. Ms. Pomaville is a recipient of the Outstanding Achievement Award from District 5 of the California Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Ms. Pomaville received her bachelorís and masterís degrees from California State University, Fresno, and is in the process of completing a doctoral degree in General Human Services.

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