Educational Audiology Handbook

Third Edition

Cheryl DeConde Johnson, Jane B. Seaton

Details: 606 pages, B&W, Softcover, 8.5" x 11'

ISBN13: 978-1-63550-108-7

© 2021 | Available

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Educational Audiology Handbook, Third Edition, offers a roadmap for audiologists who work in schools or other providers who support school-based audiology services. As the gold standard text in the field, the handbook provides guidelines and blueprints for creating and maintaining high-quality educational audiology programs. Educational audiologists will also find guidance for achieving full integration into a school staff. Within this comprehensive and practical resource, there are a range of tools, including assessment guidelines, protocols and forms, useful information for students, families, school staff, and community partners, as well as legal and reference documents.

This edition has been streamlined with many of the handouts and customizable forms moved to the PluralPlus companion website for convenient downloading and printing.

New to the Third Edition

  • All chapters revised to reflect current terminology and best practices
  • A new feature called “Nuggets from the Field” which offers practical information from experienced educational audiologists currently working in school settings
  • Revised and updated chapter on legislative and policy essentials
  • Latest perspectives on auditory processing deficits
  • Contemporary focus on student wellness and social competence
  • Expanded information and resources for access to general education
  • Updated perspectives on hearing loss prevention
  • New information on the development of remote audiology practices
  • Materials and recommendations to support interprofessional collaboration
  • Updated and more comprehensive technology information with multiple handouts and worksheets
  • Resources for students in all current learning environments
  • Expanded focus on coaching to support students and school staff
  • A PluralPlus companion website with instructor resources including PowerPoint lecture slides, a sample syllabus, learning objectives, and discussion questions, as well as student and professional access to the many handouts and customizable forms

List of Appendices

Preface

Contributors

 

Section I. Educational Audiology Practices

 

Chapter 1. Legislative and Policy Essentials

Legislation and Policies

Key Legislation

Initiatives and Events

Inclusion

The Deaf Child Bill of Rights

Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI)

The National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE).

The Council for Exceptional Children, Division for Communication, Language, and Deaf/Hard of Hearing

Legislative Initiatives

Summary

Suggested Readings and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 2. Roles and Responsibilities of the Educational Audiologist

Roles of Educational Audiologists

Educational Audiologists as Service Coordinators

Educational Audiologists as Instructional Team Members

Educational Audiologists as Consultants

Educational Audiologists in Schools for the Deaf

Responsibilities of Educational Audiologists

Identification

Assessment

Habilitation

Hearing Loss Prevention

Counseling and Coaching

Amplification, Cochlear Implants, and Other Assistive Technology

Ethical Considerations

Educational Audiology Service Delivery Models

School-Based Audiology Services 

Contracted Audiology Services

Combined School-Based and Contractual Agreement

Telepractice

Establishing and Expanding Educational Audiology Services in the Schools

Reimbursement for Educational Audiology Services

Dispensing Personal Hearing Instruments

Cerumen Management

Support for Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI)

Training for Educational Audiologists

Summary

Suggested Readings and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 3. Partnering with Families

with Janet DesGeorges

Positive Attitudes

Rapport

Respect

Trust

Effective Communication

Informational Guidance

Quantity or information

Types of Information

Parent-to-Parent Communication

Parent Involvement

Committee/Task Force Work

Classroom Support

Parent Activities

Difficult Situations

Parent/School Disagreement Over Individualized Education Program Services

Influence of a Private Provider on School Services

Families That Have Difficulty Being Involved

Differing Opinions on Communication Modality

Summary

Suggested Readings and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 4. Hearing Screening and Identification

State Hearing Screening Mandates

Screening Requirements in Private Schools, Charter Schools and Other Nontraditional Education Settings

Purposes of Hearing Screening and Identification Programs

Professional Guidelines

Age Considerations

Prevalence Considerations

Resources for Hearing Screening and Identification Programs

Personnel and Time

Scheduling Considerations

Screening and Identification Program Considerations

Early Childhood

School-Age Children and Youth

Screening and Identification Procedures

Visual Inspection

Auditory Brainstem Response

Otoacoustic Emissions

Pure-Tone Audiometry

Tympanometry

Behavioral Observation

Screening and Identification Protocols

Infants and Young Children

School-Age Children and Youth

Hearing Screening and Monitoring Children Who Cannot Respond to Traditional Techniques

Screening Personnel

Audiologists

Speech-Language Pathologists

Parent Volunteers, School Nurses, and Paraprofessionals

Training of Support Personnel

Screening Equipment and Maintenance

Screening Equipment

Equipment Maintenance/Calibration

Infection Control

Screening Environment

Location of the Screening Room

Noise Levels

Other Factors

Organization of Screening and Identification Programs

Scheduling of the Screening

Activities Prior to the Screening

Activities During the Screening

Follow-Up Procedures

Follow-up Screening for Middle Ear Conditions and Medical Referrals for Audiologic

Referrals for Audiological Evaluations

Educational Screening

Data Management and Reporting

Determining the Effectiveness of Hearing Screening and Identification Programs

Data from Screening Program

Sensitivity and Specificity

Cost Effectiveness

Summary

Suggested Readings and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 5. Assessment

The Cross-Check Principle in Educational Audiology

Basic Assessment of Hearing 

Case History

Otoscopy and Visual Inspection

Behavioral Assessment

Physiological Assessment

Modifications for Special Populations

Pure-Tone Modifications

Speech Modifications

Monitoring Hearing Sensitivity

Types of Monitoring 

Schedules for Monitoring

Additional Audiometric Information and Functional Hearing Assessment

Speech Recognition for Sentences and Phrases

Speech Perception in Noise Testing

Listening in Noise 

Speech Recognition With Visual Access

The Functional Listening Evaluation

Auditory and Listening Development Skills

Audiometric Assessment Considerations Without a Sound Booth

Cultural Considerations

Assessment of the Educational Effects of Hearing Status

The Classroom Listening Assessment

Use of Teacher Checklists

Interpretation of Audiological Information

Need for Comprehensive Evaluation

Communication of Assessment Results

Audiograms 

Written Reports

Teacher Letters 

Letters to Physicians or Other Professionals

Telephone or Personal Conferences

E-mail, Texting, and Web-Based Communication

Documentation

Privacy Issues

Personal Vulnerability and Safety

Summary 

Suggested Readings and Resources 

Appendices

 

Chapter 6. Auditory Processing Deficits

with Lisa Cannon

Auditory Processing Deficit Basics

Terminology and Definitions of Auditory Processing and Auditory Processing Deficits and Disorders

Criteria for Determination of an Auditory Processing Disorder

Practice Guidelines: The Role of the Audiologist and Other Professionals

APD and other Disorders

An Educational Model of Auditory Processing

ADP and Multitiered Systems of Support

Implementing a School-Based APD Program

Step 1. Developing the APD Team & Philosophy

Step 2. Referral & Screening

Step 3. Assessment for APD

Step 4. Eligibility for Services

Step 5. Intervention

Summary

Suggested Readings and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 7. Classroom Acoustics and Other Learning Environment Considerations

Learning Environments and At-Risk Students

Listening and Learning Challenges

Lighting and Learning Challenges

At-Risk Students

Universal Design for Learning

Properties of Classroom Acoustics

Noise

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

Reverberation

Inverse Square Law and Critical Distance

Classroom Acoustics and Speech Perception

Effects of Noise on Speech Perception

Effects of Reverberation on Speech Perception

Combined Effects of Noise and Reverberation on Speech Perception

Effects of Classroom Acoustics on Teachers

Classroom Acoustics Standard

History and Development of the Standard

Current Standard Status

Classroom Audio Distribution Systems

Conformance and Tolerance Verification

Standard Adoption

Classroom Acoustics Resolutions and Guidelines

Measuring Classroom Acoustics

Classroom Observation

Instrument and Software Programs

Classroom Noise Measurements

Classroom Reverberation Measurements

Estimating Critical Distance

Role of the Educational Audiologist

         Management of the Learning Environment

Summary

Suggested Reading and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 8. Hearing Instruments and Remote Microphone Technology

with Erin Schafer

Rationale for Hearing Instruments and Remote Microphone Technology

Recent Trends and Regulatory Considerations

Regulations

The Role of Case Law

Professional Practice Standards and Scope of Practice Considerations

The Responsibility of Public Education

Keeping up with Technological Advancements

Equipment and Space Requirements

Assessment of the Hearing Instruments and Remote Microphone Technology in Children and Youth

Candidacy and Candidacy Considerations

Device Selection Considerations for Remote Microphone Technology

Personal Hearing Instruments and Remote Microphone Technology Options

Hearing Aids

Cochlear Implants

Remote Microphone Technology

Implementation and Management of Hearing Technology

Fitting and Verification

Orientation and Training

Validation

Monitoring and Equipment Management

Strategies to Implement the American Academy of Audiology Hearing Assistance Technology Guidelines

Other Assistive Technologies

Summary

Suggested Readings and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 9. Case Management and Habilitation

Planning Case Management and Habilitation

The Importance of Service Coordination

Facilitating Effective Case Management

Implementing Audiological Habilitation

Direct Services    

Indirect Services

Services for Special Populations

Students with Unilateral Hearing Conditions, Single-Sided Deafness, or Minimal Hearing Loss  

Students with Auditory Processing Deficits and Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder

Students with Multiple Learning Challenges

Students Using Cochlear Implants (CIs)

Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI)

Inclusion

Summary

Suggested Readings and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 10. Supporting Wellness and Social-Emotional Competence

with Carrie Spangler

A Wellness Perspective

Social-Emotional Development

Bullying and Victimization

Skills and Strategies for Students to Address Wellness and Social Competence

Self-Determination Skills

Self-Advocacy Skills

Counseling Strategies

Reflective Listening

Self-Assessment

Extending Conversations and Coaching

Networking for Students

Peer Mentors and Role Models

Referring for Additional Services

Summary

Suggested Reading and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 11. Developing Individual Plans

The Special Education Process

Step 1: Identification: Concern About the Child

Step 2: Referral to Special Education and Assessment

Step 3: Determination of Eligibility

Step 4: The Individualized Education Program Meeting

Step 5: Review and Revision of the Individualized Education Program

Due Process Procedures

The Educational Audiologist’s Role in the Special Education Process

The Individual Education Program

Consideration of Special Factors: Communication Considerations

Services, Placement and Least Restrictive Environment Considerations

Services for Parents

Transition Planning

Individualized Educaiton Program Goal Development

Section 504 Plan

The Services Plan

The Individual Family Service Plan 

Eligibility Criteria

Purpose of the Individual Family Service Plan

Individual Family Service Plan Requirements

The Role of Case Law

Summary

Suggested Readings and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 12. Prevention of Noise Induced Hearing Loss and Tinnitus in Youth

with Deanna K. Meinke

Epidemiology Estimates of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Youth

Epidemiology of Noise-Induced Tinnitus in Youth

Rationale for Hearing Loss Prevention Targeting Youth

Public Health Role for Audiologists

Raising Public Awareness in the School Setting

Noise Awareness and Prevention Programs

Education to Prevent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

Dangerous Decibels

Hearing Screenings for At-Risk Individuals

Advocating for Public Policies

Challenges and Future Directions

 

Section II. Collaborative Practices & Program Effectiveness

 

Chapter 13. Supporting the Educational Team

with Carrie Spangler

Formal Inservice

Preparation

Presentation

Follow-up

Continuing Contact With Participants

Coaching and Mentoring

Educational Coaching

Coaching for Educational Audiology

Mentoring

Summary

Suggested Readings and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 14. Educational Considerations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

Critical Issues in Deaf Education

Accountability and Oversight

Communication and Communication Access

Quality Instruction

Evidenced-Based Practices

Students Not Eligible for Special Education

Maintaining Teacher of the Deaf and Related Service Provider Positions

Parent and Family Engagement

Early Hearing Detection and Intervention and Early Childhood Education

Technology

Deaf Versus Hard of Hearing

National Association of State Directors of Special Education: Ten Essential Principles for Effective Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

What Is Research Saying?

Legislative Initiatives in Deaf Education

Language Acquisition and Literacy Accountability

Deaf Child’s Bill of Rights

Hearing Aid Insurance

Educational Assessment

Transition Planning

Best Practice Considerations in Educating Children and Youth Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Know Your Students

Adopt Program Standards

Conduct a Program Review

Identify Evidenced-Based and Consensus-Based Practices

Utilize Progress Monitoring

Incorporate Expanded Core Curricula

Utilize Deaf and Hard of Hearing Peers and Role Models

Engage Parents and Caregivers

Summary

Suggested Readings and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 15. Collaborative School–Community Partnerships

Establishing and Maintaining Relations With Community Resources

Identifying and Interfacing ith Community Resources

Identifying Resources Through a Community Survey

Potential Community Partners

Updating the Community Resource Survey

Marketing and Advocacy for Educational Audiology Programs

Increased Name Recognition

Broadened Visibility of Service

Increased Knowledge of Program Outcomes

Internal Marketing

External Marketing

Developing and Fostering Creative Collaborative Efforts

            Information and Materials to Share

            Facilitating Interprofessional Collaboration

            Fostering Creative Community Collaboration

Legal and Ethical Issues

Summary

Suggested Readings and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 16. Program Development, Evaluation, and Management

Program Development

Laying the Foundation

Needs Assessment

Planning

Program Evaluation

Assessment of Existing Audiology Services

Planning for Improvement

Implementation of New Services

Measuring Effectiveness

State Model Evaluation Systems

Program Management

Annual and Monthly Scheduling

Day-to-Day Scheduling

Office Support

Data Management

Forms

Budget and Finances

Facilitating Meetings

Challenges

Summary

Suggested Reading and Resources

Appendices

 

Chapter 17. Reflections and Future Directions

with Sarah Florence

Emerging Themes

The Educational Audiologist as an Integral Member of the Multidisciplinary Team

The Emphasis on Accountability, Specific Student and Program Outcomes, and Use of Cost -Effective Strategies to Address Critical Issues

Societal Factors

Promoting Hearing Loss Prevention as a Social Health Problem

Remote Audiology Practices

Remote Educational Audiology Services Model

Remote/Onsite Hybrid Model

Remote Support of Onsite Educational Audiologists

Service Consderations

Reote Technology Tools

Summary

 

References

Index

Cheryl DeConde Johnson

Cheryl DeConde Johnson, EdD, has an extensive history of advocacy for children and youth who are deaf and hard of hearing and their families. Through her many roles as an educational audiologist, early intervention specialist, deaf and hard of hearing program administrator, deaf education and audiology consultant with the Colorado Department of Education, author, and university instructor, she continues to provide consultation, program evaluation, and training globally through her practice, the ADE-vantage (Audiology Deaf Education). Cheryl is also a co-founder of Hands & Voices. She is most proud of her grown daughter who describes herself as sometimes deaf and sometimes hard of hearing and from whom Cheryl continues to be enlightened.  Cheryl now shares her time between Leadville, Colorado, and Green Valley, Arizona.

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Jane B. Seaton

Jane B. Seaton, MS, consultant in audiology and communication disorders, has spent more than 40 years working with families and children with significant hearing and listening challenges. She developed and administered a model regional educational program for deaf and hard of hearing students and has professional experience in the field of pediatric and educational audiology in university, pubic health, hospital and public school settings. Ms. Seaton received an undergraduate degree from Northwestern University, a Master’s degree from the University of Michigan, and continued her post-graduate education at the Universities of Akron, Washington, and Georgia. She has been an invited speaker and writer in the field of educational audiology and continues to serve as an early intervention specialist and stakeholder for Georgia’s Early Hearing Detection and Intervention program.

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