Clinical Neuroscience for Communication Disorders: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology

First Edition

Margaret Lehman Blake, Jerry K. Hoepner

Details: 350 pages, Full Color, Hardcover, 8.5" x 11"

ISBN13: 978-1-63550-365-4

© 2023 | Coming Soon

Release Date: 11/01/2021

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Price: $109.95

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Clinical Neuroscience for Communication Disorders: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology offers a comprehensive and easy-to-understand introduction to neuroscience for undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the field of communication disorders. Packed with features to aid student understanding, this textbook introduces the range of systems involved in communication (speech, language, cognition, hearing) and swallowing, from the nervous system to the anatomy of the head and neck.

Each chapter begins by tying the content to the everyday clinical applications for speech-language pathologists, audiologists, and related professionals and includes clinical cases to illustrate neural functions. In addition to coverage of the main systems, this text contains chapters devoted to neuroplasticity and communication and cognition to move beyond basic anatomy to the key principles of contemporary neuroscience and application of the concepts discussed. A clinical cases chapter includes a variety of both pediatric and adult cases designed to stimulate clinical thinking and tie together neural function with communicative abilities. The clinical cases chapter is cross referenced with each of the other chapters to support those connections.

Key Features

  • Customized illustrations solidify connections between anatomy and physiology
  • An initial paragraph on clinical application sets up each chapter in context
  • Bolded keywords throughout the text highlight foundational concepts and terminology
  • Boxes throughout the text offer an opportunity for applying learning, through applications, exercises, glossaries of key terms, and clinical cases
  • Clinical cases in the chapters illustrate key concepts. Expanded versions of these cases are provided in a stand-alone chapter to highlight the interconnectedness of neural systems and the complexity of neurologically-based communication disorders
  • Clinical cases span the breadth of clinical practice including developmental and acquired disorders, pediatric and adult cases, and disorders of speech, language, cognition, swallowing, and hearing.
  • End-of-chapter summaries provide an overview of the key concepts within the chapter in plain language
  • A numbered list of key concepts concludes each chapter to reinforce learning outcomes
  • References and further reading augment student learning
  • A PluralPlus companion website with PowerPoint lecture slides for instructors and case studies, lists of recommended reading and websites, and links to related videos for students

Chapter 1. Overview of the Nervous System
Major Components
Organization of the Nervous System

Organizational Systems         

Cytoarchitecture Organization

Organization by Function

Terminology
Nervous System Cells

Neurons

Glial Cells

Structures and Landmarks

Lobes

Frontal Lobes

Parietal Lobes

Temporal Lobes

Occipital Lobes

Basal Ganglia

Thalamus

Cerebellum

Brainstem

Summary
References

Chapter 2. Ventricular System: Cranium, Ventricles, and Meninges
Overview
Cranium, Cranial Vault, and Its Contents
Meningeal Layers

Dura Mater

Arachnoid Layer and Pia Mater

Ventricles

Cerebrospinal Fluid Path and Functions

Communication through the Ventricular System

Disruptions to the Ventricular and Meningeal System

Hydrocephalus           

Meningeal Damage

Summary
References and Additional Resources
Overview

Chapter 3. Neuron Anatomy and Physiology
Overview
Classification of Neurons
Neuronal Communication

Big Picture Overview

Membrane Potentials

Synaptic Transmission

Action Potentials       

Myelinated vs Unmyelinated Axons

Synaptic Transmission

Types of Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitter Recovery and Degradation

Creating Meaning from Binary Signals

Patterns of Signals

Source of Signals

Region or Location

Conditions That Alter Synaptic Transmission

Neurologic Disorders and Diseases That Affect Synaptic Transmission

Parkinson’s Disease

Multiple Sclerosis

Myasthenia Gravis

Pharmacological Effects on Synaptic Transmission

Blocking Effects

Prolonging Effects

Mimicking Effect

Summary
References and Additional Resources

Chapter 4. Neuroembryology
Overview       
The Neural Tube

Developmental (Embryologic) Precursors

Sulcus Limitans

Lamina Terminalis (Precursor to the Corpus Callosum)

Vesicles of the Neural Tube (CNS Precursors)

Landmark Timelines

Telencephalon and C-Shaped Development
Disruptions to Development and Consequences
Summary       
References and Additional Resources

Chapter 5. Diencephalon
Overview       
Diencephalic Structures

Thalamus

Thalamic nuclei     

Epithalamus

Subthalamus

Hypothalamus

Pituitary Gland

Damage to the Diencephalon
Summary

Chapter 6. Somatosensory Systems
Overview
Somatosensory System Structures

Sensory Receptors

Mechanoreceptors

Nociceptors

Proprioceptive Sensory Receptors

Thalamic Nuclei

Primary Somatosensory Cortex

Cortical Association Areas

Sensory Pathways

Dorsal-Column Medial-Lemniscal Pathway

Spinothalamic Tracts

Spinocerebellar Tracts

Sensory Innervation
Damage to Somatosensory System Components

Spinal Cord Damage

Thalamic Damage

Cortical Damage

Summary

Chapter 7. Visual System
Overview       
The Eye

Anterior Structures

Posterior Structures: The Retina

Visual Fields

Visual Pathway
Visual Cortex

Dorsal Pathway

Ventral Pathway

Damage to the Visual System

Visual Field Cuts

Cortical Damage

Summary

Chapter 8. Auditory and Vestibular Systems
Overview       
Auditory System

The Cochlea

Converting Sound Waves into Neural Signals

Auditory Pathway

Frequency and Intensity Coding in the Auditory System     

Localization of Sound

Auditory Processing in the Cortex

Hearing Impairment and Damage to the Auditory System

 Conductive Hearing Loss

Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Vestibular System

Vestibular Pathways

Summary
References

Chapter 9. Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste
Olfaction
Olfaction: The Sense of Smell

Olfactory Pathway

Impairments of Olfaction

Gustation: The Sense of Taste

Gustatory Pathway

Factors Influencing Taste Perception

Impairments of Gustation

Summary       

Chapter 10. Motor Systems
Overview

Primary Motor Strip

Premotor and Supplementary Motor Areas

Basal Ganglia

Cerebellum

Motor Pathways

Pyramidal Tracts

Cranial and Spinal Nerves

Corticospinal Tracts

Corticobulbar Tract

Extrapyramidal Tracts

Rubrospinal Tract

Tectospinal Tract

Vestibulospinal Tract

Reticulospinal Tract

Motor Units and Muscle Innervation
Clinical Implications

Motor Cortex

Motor Pathways

Neuromuscular Junction

Basal Ganglia

Cerebellum

Summary

Chapter 11. Cranial Nerves
Overview

General Functions

Cranial Nerve Pathways

Motor Pathways: Corticobulbar Tract

Sensory Pathways

Cranial Nerves III, IV, and VI: Occulomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens.

Muscles of the Eye

Oculomotor Nerve

Trochlear Nerve

Abducens Nerve

Cranial Nerve V: Trigeminal Nerve
Cranial Nerve VII: Facial Nerve
Cranial Nerve IX: Glossopharyngeal
Cranial Nerve X: Vagus Nerve

Pharyngeal Branch of the Vagus

Superior Laryngeal Nerve of the Vagus

Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve of the Vagus

Pharyngeal Plexus

Cranial Nerve XI: Spinal Accessory Nerve
Cranial Nerve XII: Hypoglossal Nerve
Integration of Cranial Nerve Functions

Speech Production

Swallowing

Clinical Implications: Examinations of Speech and Swallowing Mechanisms

Cranial Nerve/Oral Mechanism Examination

Smell and Taste

Vision

Extraocular Movements (CNs III, IV, VI)

Jaw Movements and Mastication (CN V)

Facial Sensation (CN V)

Muscles of Facial Expression and Oral Preparation (CN VII)

Hearing (CN VIII)

Velar Functions - Motor and Sensory (V, IX, X)

Laryngeal Functions – Motor and Sensory (X)

Spinal Accessory (XI)

Lingual Motor Functions (XII with a Little Help from X)

Lingual Sensation (V and IX)

Oral and Laryngeal Diadochokinetic (DDK) Rate

Evidence for the OME

Summary
References and Additional Resources

Chapter 12. Limbic System and Reticular Formation
Limbic System Structures and Functions

 Homeostasis

Olfaction

Memory

Emotions

Integrating Limbic Information

Reticular Formation and Reticular Activating System (RAS)
Summary
References and Additional Resources

Chapter 13. Cerebrovascular System
Overview
Blood Supply and Functional Organization
Circle of Willis
Cerebral Blood Supply Distributions
Blood Supply to the Thalamus and Basal Ganglia
Blood Supply to the Cerebellum
Brainstem and Spinal Cord Distributions

Midbrain

Pons

Medulla

Spinal Cord

Blood Brain Barrier
Disruptions to Blood Supply
Summary
References and Additional Resources

Chapter 14. Communication and Cognition
Overview       
Common Developmental Disruptions

Developmental Language Disorders

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Down Syndrome

Fragile X Syndrome

Common Neurologic Insults and Diseases

Traumatic Brain Injury

Degenerative Diseases and Tumors

Communication

Language

Networks

Development

Lesions and Disorders

Pragmatics and Social Cognition

Networks

Development

Lesions and Disorders

Cognition

Executive Functions

Networks

Development

Lesions and Disorders

Memory

Networks

Development

Lesions and Disorders

Attention

Networks

Development

Summary
References

Chapter 15. Neuroplasticity
Neural (Cellular) Plasticity
Behavioral Plasticity

Intensity and Dosage

Factors That Contribute to Participation

Functional Reactivation Vs. Functional Reorganization
Summary       
References

Chapter 16. Clinical Cases
Overview
Approach to Solving (Thinking Through) Cases
Section 1: Acquired Cases

Case 16–1. 48-Year-Old Female With Traumatic Brain Injury

Case 16–3. 56-Year-Old Female With Progressive Onset of Dysphagia and Speech Impairments.

Case 16–4. 17-Year-Old Female With TBI

Case 16–5. 63-Year-Old Male With Aphasia and Right Hemiparesis

Case 16–6. 86-Year-Old Male With Insidious Onset of Cognitive-Communication Changes.

Case 16–7. 45-Year-Old Female With Acute Onset of Confusion and Language Impairment

Case 16–8. 62-Year-Old Male With Acute Onset of Lethargy and Impaired Attention

Case 16–9. 52-Year-Old Male With Acute Onset of “Slurred Speech” and “Drunken Gait”

Case 16–10. 70-Year-Old Male With Acute Onset of Dysarthria, Vertigo, Nausea, and Double Vision.

Case 16–11. 22-Year-Old With Acute Onset of Weakness and Respiratory Distress.

Case 16–12. 62-Year-Old Female With Gradual Onset of Speech and Swallowing Impairments.     

Case 16–13. 78-Year-Old Female With Gradual Onset of Speech and Gait Disturbances.

Case 16–14. 52-Year-Old Female With Declining Cognition, Speech, and Swallowing Function.

Case 16–15. 86-Year-Old Female With Memory and Swallowing Difficulties.

Case 16–16. 73-Year-Old Male With Right Facial and Tongue Atrophy

Section 2: Pediatric and Developmental Cases

Case 16–17. 5-Year-Old Boy With Shunt Malfunction

Case 16–18. 4-Year-Old Male With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

Case 16–19. 30-Year-Old Female With Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

Case 16–20. 11-Year-Old Male With Brainstem Tumor.

Case 16–20. 11-Year-Old Female With TBI

Appendix A. Review of Head and Neck Anatomy
Review
Face

Facial Skeleton and Cranium

Facial Muscles

Velum
Tongue
Pharynx
Larynx
Neck

Index

Margaret Lehman Blake

Margaret Lehman Blake, PhD, CCC-SLP, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at the University of Houston. She earned her PhD from the University of Pittsburgh and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Mayo Clinic. Her research focuses on cognitive-communication disorders associated with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) and spans basic processes, assessment, and treatment. She has authored numerous articles and chapters and has presented nationally and internationally on evidence-based practice for disorders associated with RHD. Dr. Blake teaches at the graduate and undergraduate levels, including anatomy/physiology and neuroscience for communication, cognitive-communication disorders, and how to be a critical consumer of research. She is a recipient of the University of Houston Teaching Excellence Award. Dr. Blake is a past president of the Academy of Neurologic Communication Disorders & Sciences and has served in various supporting roles in the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and the Clinical Aphasiology Conference.

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Jerry K. Hoepner

Jerry K. Hoepner, PhD, CCC-SLP, is a Professor in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at the University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire. His research addresses cognitive-communication interventions and teaching pedagogies. He has taught neuroscience courses for more than 15 years and presents frequently on cognitive-communication rehabilitation. He is a past recipient of the University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire Excellence in Mentoring Research award and the University of Wisconsin Systems Regent's Excellence in Teaching award.

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Clinical Neuroscience for Communication Disorders: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology comes with access to supplementary student and instructor materials on a PluralPlus companion website.

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*Note for students: If you have purchased this textbook used or have rented it, your access code will not work if it was already redeemed by the original buyer of the book. Plural Publishing does not offer replacement access codes for used or rented textbooks. 

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