Neuroscience Fundamentals for Communication Sciences and Disorders

Second Edition

Richard D. Andreatta

Details: 802 pages, Full Color, Hardcover, 8.5" x 11"

ISBN13: 978-1-63550-359-3

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Neuroscience Fundamentals for Communication Sciences and Disorders, Second Edition is a comprehensive textbook primarily designed for undergraduate neural bases or graduate neuroscience courses in communication sciences and disorders programs (CSD). The text can also be used as an accessible go-to reference for speech-language pathology and audiology clinical professionals practicing in medical and rehab settings. Written with an engaging and conversational style, the author uses humor and analogies to explain concepts that are often challenging for students. Complemented by more than 400 visually rich and beautifully drawn full-color illustrations, the book emphasizes brain and behavior relationships while also ensuring coverage of essential neuroanatomy and neurophysiology in an integrative fashion. With a comprehensive background in the principles, processes, and structures underlying the workings of the human nervous system, students and practitioners alike will be able to better understand and apply brain-behavior relationships to make appropriate clinical assessments and treatment decisions.

Extending well beyond traditional neuroanatomy-based textbooks, this resource is designed to satisfy three major goals:

  • Provide neuroanatomical and neurophysiological detail that meets the real-world needs of the contemporary CSD student as they move forward toward clinical practice and into the future where advancements in the field of health and brain sciences are accelerating and contributing more and more each day to all areas of rehabilitation.
  • Provide clear, understandable explanations and intuitive material that explains how and why neuroanatomical systems, processes, and mechanisms of the nervous system operate as they do during human behavior.
  • Provide a depth and scope of material that will allow the reader to better understand and appreciate a wide range of evidence-based literature related to behavior, cognition, emotion, language, and sensory perception—areas that all directly impact treatment decisions.

New to the Second Edition

  • 40 new full-color illustrations 
  •  Reorganization and division of content from Chapters 4, 5, and 6 of the previous edition, into six new and more digestible chapters
  •  A new standalone chapter on the cranial nerves 
  •  Addition of a major section and discussion on the neural bases of swallowing
  •  Addition of more summary tables and process flowcharts to simplify the text and provide ready-made study materials for students 
  •  Revisions to most figures to improve their clarity and coherence with the written material

PluralPlus Online Ancillary Resources

For Instructors: PowerPoint Lecture Slides, Chapter Exams, Test Bank, Course Syllabus

For Students: eFlashcards and Unlabeled Anatomy Illustrations

Instructor test bank available on the Respondus Test Bank Network.


Praise for the First Edition

"This text is excellent. I love the analogies and descriptive illustrations to aid comprehension. I really appreciate having the option for unlabeled images. I put those on my class handouts to work on as we are learning new material. Best text I have ever used."
 Kelly Kleinhans, PhD, Associate Professor and Program Director, Master of Speech-Language Pathology, Austin Peay State University

"It is more in-depth than most, if not all, the books I have considered for teaching undergraduate neuroscience for Communication Sciences and Disorders majors. This book tackles a very difficult and dense subject using a mixture of strong, clear explanations and humor that will help students during their introduction to neuroscience. Neuroscience is often one of, if not the most daunting topics for our undergraduates, and this book makes it very digestible."
Daniel Furnas, PhD, Assistant Professor, Communication Sciences and Disorders, Jacksonville University

"Andreatta has taken a different approach that is considerably less intimidating than other texts. The use of mild humor, analogies and the manner in which concepts are presented makes this an easy yet comprehensive read. It is probably the most comprehensive and student friendly text that I have seen written for undergraduate students."
Carol Deakin, PhD, Associate Professor, Communication Sciences and Disorders, Alabama A&M University

"Humor throughout the text adds to the readability. Neuroscience can make for dry reading, but the humor makes it lighter. The manuscript is very thorough and covers a substantial number of topics. The chapter on the ear is excellent. ...It is much better than a comparable neuroscience for CSD text that I have used in the past."
Jeremy J. Donai, AuD, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, West Virginia University

"The primary strength of this text is in its detail and organization. A very complete, well-written text. Its scope includes explanations of the mechanisms of the brain underlying basic and skilled actions from cellular functions, anatomic structures and physiologic processes of the nervous system. With a solid background in neuroscience, students will be able to better understand brain-behavior relationships in order to make appropriate clinical assessment and treatment decisions. The relatable examples, with a touch of humor, makes the text very readable. Students should be able to relate to all analogies and this prevents the reader from getting too bogged down in detail as they attempt to understand complex concepts."
Janis M. Jarecki-Liu, PhD, Professor, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Clarion University of Pennsylvania

"The author is very creative and the relatable, conversational style of this book is a definite strength. The author uses well placed, vivid analogies to explain concepts that can be quite challenging for students. The overall structure and organization of the book is also a strength as it uses a logical progression of the material."
Irene M. Barrow, PhD, Professor, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, James Madison University

"As a student, I was intimidated by the complexity and grandeur of the nervous system. Dr. Andreatta's textbook, however, explained neuroscience in such an approachable and engaging manner. This textbook was truly a bright spot of a difficult semester, lighting a passion for neuroscience within me with fascinatingly clear food analogies and pockets of humor and empathetic notes throughout." 
Peace Lu, Struggling Student Who Ended Up Fascinated With Neuroscience 


“…The book targets several different audiences: senior undergraduate and graduate students in speech-language pathology, students in doctoral audiology programs, practicing clinicians, and faculty in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD), including those without neuroscience expertise. It is also accessible to those without any formal training in neuroscience. The book is organized, well-written, and illustrated in a way that faculty can use when teaching the neural bases of speech and language. The book serves as a useful guide to help lecturers build a course, create course content and/or materials, and design and develop lectures.
The book is divided into four sections, each with a list of corresponding chapters. This handy feature aids in conveying the four overarching topics of the book, and supports clinicians who wish to reference the book with a specific inquiry. To assist in learning and solidifying information, each chapter contains a "Top Ten" section that provides a thorough overview of the chapter's main points. The chapter covering the neural underpinnings necessary for speech includes several different modalities for effective learning: easy-to-read charts, engaging and amusing language, visual figures, and real-life situational examples of neurological involvement. This second edition book provides more full-color illustrations than the first edition, and includes more summary tables, flow charts, and revised visual figures…
This book is a worthy resource for any student or clinician requiring knowledge of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. It covers the subject area in a comprehensive manner, allowing both students to acquire necessary groundwork knowledge and clinicians to reference the information in practice.”

– Melissa Raymond, M.S, Biola University, from Doody’s Reviews (May 2023)

About the Illustrator: Maury Aaseng


Section 1. Neuroanatomical and Neurophysiological Foundations


Chapter 1. Introduction and Organization of Neuroscience Fundamentals in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Richard D. Andreatta

What Is Neuroscience?
What Is This Book About?
The View From 30,000 Feet Up

Overview of Section 1: Neuroanatomical and Neurophysiological Foundations
Overview of Section 2: Sensory Systems
Overview of Section 3: Motor Systems
Overview of Section 4: Neural Substrates of Speech, Language, and Hearing

Study Strategies and Tips
Closing Thoughts

Chapter 2. Basic Structure and Function of Neurons
Richard D. Andreatta

Introduction and Learning Objectives
Discovery of Two Classes of Cells in the Nervous System
The Neuron

Neurons Are Made for Signaling and Communication
Neurons Never Function Alone
Neurons Perform Fundamental Activities
Reflexes Provide a Window Into the Fundamental Operation of Neural Networks
Nerve Cells Have Different Shapes, Sizes, and Functions
Structural Features of the Neuron

Soma, Cell Membrane, and Cytoskeleton
Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Apparatus
The Nucleus Mediates the Process of Gene Expression
Axons and Dendrites

The Glial Cell

Glial Cells Are Divided Into Two Major Functional Groups

The Top Ten List
Chapter 2 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 3. Basics of Neural Signaling and Synaptic Function
Richard D. Andreatta

Introduction and Learning Objectives
Foundations of Neural Signaling: The Nature of Information in the Nervous System

Electronics 101

Gradients: Putting Substances Into Motion
Developing an Electrical Gradient
Voltage, Current, and Resistance

The Fluid Environment of the Neuron: Intracellular and Extracellular Composition
Ion Channels: Tunnels Across the Neuron’s Cell Membrane

Ion Channels Can Control the Motion of Ions
Ion Channels Can Gate Ionic Currents in Three Ways
Some Ion Channels Are Always Open
Ion Pumps Are Active Transporters of Ions Across the Neuron’s Cell Membrane

Understanding Membrane Potentials

Membrane Voltages Are Created by a Separation of Charges
Vm Can Be Changed by Ionic Gradients and Currents
Development of the Neuron’s Resting Membrane Potential

The Action Potential

Voltage-Gated Ion Channels Are Chiefly Responsible for AP Generation
Voltage-Gated Na+ and K+ Channels Differ in Their Opening Speed
The Action Potential in “Action”
Propagation of the Action Potential Down the Axon

Synapses: The Point of Communication Between Neurons

Electrical Synapses Allow For Virtually Instantaneous Signal Transmission
Chemical Synapses: The Workhorse of the Nervous System
Structure of the Chemical Synapse
Chemical Synapse Function: Transmission Phase
Chemical Synapse Function: Receptive Phase
Postsynaptic Receptors Belong to Two Different Functional Classes
Ending Chemical Synaptic Transmission: “Cleaning Up After the Party”
Neurotransmitters Can Be Divided Into a Handful of Chemical Classes
A Few Final Words on Neurotransmission

Neural Integration: Closing (and Opening) the Neural Signaling Loop

The “Government Analogy” of Neural Integration in the Postsynaptic Cell

Concluding Thoughts on Neurobiology
The Top Ten List
Chapter 3 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 4. Neuroanatomy of the Human Nervous System: Anatomical Nomenclature, Embryology, the Spinal Cord, and the Brainstem
Richard D. Andreatta

Introduction and Learning Objectives
Getting Around the Nervous System: Anatomical Planes and Orientations

Anatomical Orientations
Anatomical Planes

Gray Versus White Matter in the Nervous System

Gray Matter in the CNS and PNS
White Matter Consists of Bundles of Axons

A Brief Tour of the Embryologic Development of the Nervous System

The Human Embryo is a Multilayered Collection of Cells
Neural Crest and Neural Tube Cells Differentiate Into the PNS and CNS

Major Anatomical Structures and Functions of the Human Central Nervous System

The Skull and Vertebral Column House and Protect the Tissues of the CNS
The Spinal Cord

External Spinal Cord Structures
Internal Spinal Cord Structures: Gray Matter
Internal Spinal Cord Structures: White Matter

The Brainstem: An Overview

The Medulla

Medulla: External Features
Medulla: Internal Features

The Pons

Pons: External Features
Pons: Internal Features

The Mesencephalon

Mesencephalon: External Features
Mesencephalon: Internal Features

The Top Ten List
Chapter 4 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 5. Neuroanatomy of the Human Nervous System: Cranial Nerve Systems
Richard D. Andreatta

Introduction and Learning Objectives
Organization of the Cranial Nerves and Nuclei in the Brainstem
Functional Classifications of the Cranial Nerves

Motor: General Somatic Efferent (GSE)
Motor: Special Visceral Efferent (SVE)
Motor: General Visceral Efferent (GVE)
Sensory: General Somatic Afferent (GSA)
Sensory: General Visceral Afferent (GVA)
Sensory: Special Somatic Afferent (SSA)
Sensory: Special Visceral Afferent (SVA)

Cranial Nerves: Normal and Disordered Functions

CN I: Olfactory (SVA)
CN II: Optic (SSA)
CN III: Oculomotor (GSE and GVE)
CN IV: Trochlear (GSE)
CN V: Trigeminal (GSA and SVE)
CN VI: Abducens (GSE)
CN VIII: Auditory-Vestibular (SSA)
CN IX: Glossopharyngeal (SVE, GVE, GVA, SVA, GSA)
CN XI: Spinal Accessory (SVE)
CN XII: Hypoglossal (GSE)

The Top Ten List
Chapter 5 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 6. Neuroanatomy of the Human Nervous System: The Diencephalon, Cerebrum, and the Cerebral Cortex
Richard D. Andreatta

Introduction and Learning Objectives
The Diencephalon

The Thalamus: “Gatekeeper” of Ascending Information to the Cerebral Cortex

The Thalamus Is a Collection of Nuclei With Unique Inputs and Outputs

The Hypothalamus: “CEO” of the Body’s Homeostatic Regulatory Systems

The Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis (HPA) Operates as a Feedback Control System
Hypothalamus Consists of Numerous Nuclei With Unique Operations
Hypothalamic Nuclei Participate in a Wide Range of Homeostatic Functions

The Cerebrum: The Center of Our Lives and Who We Are
The Lobes of the Cerebrum

The Frontal Lobe: The Cognitive and Motor Control Center of the Cerebrum

Frontal Lobe: Anatomical Features
Frontal Lobe: Functional Features

The Parietal Lobe: Multimodal Sensory Center of the Cerebrum

Parietal Lobe: Anatomical Features
Parietal Lobe: Functional Features

The Temporal Lobe: The “Can You Hear Me Now” and “What am I” Cerebral Region

Temporal Lobe: Anatomical Features
Temporal Lobe: Functional Features

The Occipital Lobe: The Visual Center of the Cerebrum

Occipital Lobe: Anatomical Features
Occipital Lobe: Functional Features

The Insula: Is It a Lobe or Not?

The Cerebral Cortex

Anatomical Features of the Cerebral Cortex
Organization of the Cerebral Cortex: Brodmann’s Areas and Cortical Columns
The Cortex Is Arranged to Support Serial and Parallel Processing of Information
The Cortex Is Organized to Support Cognition
Parietal Association Areas Mediate Visual Guidance, Spatial Awareness, and Attention
Temporal Association Areas Recognize Complex Objects
Phineas Gage and the Iron Spike: An Accidental Study of the Frontal Association Area
The Limbic System (Limbic Association Area): Emotional Center of the Brain

Hippocampal Formation Is Involved in Spatial Learning and Long-Term Memory
Hippocampal Formation Anatomy: Hippocampus, Dentate Gyrus, and Subiculum
Amygdala Mediates Threat, Anxiety, and Aggressive Behaviors
Anterior Cingulate Gyrus: At the Crossroads of Emotion and Cognition
Septal Area: Key Component of CNS’s Reward System

Interhemispheric Connectivity and Cerebral Dominance
The Top Ten List
Chapter 6 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 7. Neuroanatomy of the Human Nervous System: White Matter Tracts, Protective Infrastructure, and the Brain’s Blood Supply
Richard D. Andreatta

Introduction and Learning Objectives
Connectivity and White Matter Pathways of the CNS

Association Fibers Interconnect Areas Within a Hemisphere
Commissural Fibers Link Brain Regions Across the Midline
Projection Fibers Shuttle Information to and From the Brain

Protecting the CNS From Harm: The Meninges and the Ventricular System

The Meninges
The Ventricular System

The Vascular System of the Brain

Neurovascular Complex Is Divided Into Arterial and Venous Systems

Anterior Arterial System
Posterior Arterial System
Venous System Sinuses Drain Deoxygenated Blood Back to the Heart

Vascular Pathology Can Arise From Three General Situations

Aneurysms and Hemorrhagic Stroke
Ischemic Events
Arteriovenous Malformations

The Top Ten List
Chapter 7 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Section 2. Sensory Systems


Chapter 8. Basics Principles of Sensation and Perception
Richard D. Andreatta

Introduction and Learning Objectives
Sensation Versus Perception

Nervous Systems Are Far From Ideal to Sense and Perceive
Perception Requires Filtering, Selection, Inference, and Prediction
Sensations Are Processed by Sensory Systems
Quantifying Sensation and Perception
All Sensory Events Possess Four Basic Attributes Related to Perception
Modality: What Is the Stimulus?
Location: Where Is the Stimulus?
Intensity: How Strong Is the Stimulus?
Duration: How Long Does the Stimulus Last?

Sensation and Perception Are Actively Regulated by the CNS

The Top Ten List
Chapter 8 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 9. The Somatosensory System: Touch, Proprioception, Temperature, and Pain
Richard D. Andreatta

Introduction and Learning Objectives
The Somatosensory System: An Overview
The Peripheral Somatosensory Apparatus: Sensory Receptors and the Primary Afferent

Cutaneous Tactile Receptors of the Somatosensory System
Proprioception Sense Is Mediated by Sensory Endings in the Musculoskeletal System
Temperature Reception Depends on the Expression of Different Types of Ion Channels
Nociception and the Perceptual Response of Pain
Axon Features of the Primary Afferent That Transmits Inputs Centrally
Dermatomes and the Trigeminal Innervation Zones

Central Somatosensory Pathways

Dorsal-Column Medial Lemniscal System: Touch and Proprioception From the Body
Anterolateral System: Noxious and Temperature Sensation
Trigeminal System Manages All Forms of Somatosensation From the Face and Head

The Somatosensory Cortex

Structural and Functional Features of the Somatosensory Cortex
S1 Possesses Four Complete Cortical Body Representations
Speech-Related Activity of S1
Outputs From the Somatosensory Cortical Areas
Posterior Parietal Lobe Receives Inputs From Primary and 2nd Somatosensory Areas

Neuroplasticity: Changes to the Structure and Function of the Brain

Somatosensory Cortex Receives Diffuse Projections From the Thalamus
S1 Plasticity as a Function of Enriched Experiences
The Timing of Sensory Inputs Are Critical Factors in Changing Cortical Representations
Implication of the Neuroplasticity Literature to Rehabilitation

The Top Ten List
Chapter 9 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 10. Auditory-Vestibular System: Inner Ear Transduction Mechanisms for Sound and Balance
Richard D. Andreatta

Introduction and Learning Objectives
A Quick Summary of Acoustic Transduction in the Outer and Middle Ear
The Inner Ear and the Cochlea

Basilar Membrane Is a Frequency Analyzer
Organ of Corti Is the Chief Site for Transduction of Auditory Inputs
Hair Cell Structural and Functional Features
Stereocilia Are Key Elements for Signal Transduction in the Hair Cell
Mechanotransduction Mechanism for Acoustic Signals in the Cochlea

Stereocilia Shearing and Hair Cell Receptor Activation
Auditory Nerve Transmits HC Receptor Potential Changes to the Cochlear Nuclei
Auditory Nerve Firing Encodes Acoustic Intensity and Frequency
If the IHC Is the True Sensory Receptor, Why Do OHCs Exist?

The Vestibular System

Otolith Organs Transduce Linear Motion
Semicircular Canals Measure Angular Acceleration

Central Vestibular Pathway

Vestibulo-Ocular Response Is Critical for Keeping Your Eyes on the Target

The Top Ten List
Chapter 10 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 11. The Visual System
Richard D. Andreatta

Introduction and Learning Objectives
The Nature of Light in Our Environment
The Peripheral Visual Apparatus: Anatomical Overview of the Eye

Gross Anatomy of the Anterior Eye
Gross Anatomy of the Posterior Eye
Visual Fields

The Retina

Of Rods and Cones: Light Transduction in the Retina

Rods Mediate Vision During Dim and Nighttime Lighting
Cones Mediate Spatial Acuity and Color Vision in Bright Light Conditions

Phototransduction Mechanism
Photoreceptors Differentially Activate ON- or OFF-Bipolar Cells
Signal Integration and Convergence Through the Retinal Layers
Retinal Ganglion Cells Form the Beginning of Different Visual Processing Streams

The Central Visual Pathway

Retinal Ganglion Cell Axons Become the Fibers of the Optic Nerve, Chiasm, and Tract
Optic Tract Neurons Project Principally to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
The Primary Visual Cortex

Dorsal and Ventral Visual Streams

The Dorsal Visual Processing Stream
The Ventral Visual Processing Stream

Visual Field and Pathway Deficits
Noncortical Visual System Projections From the Retina

The Top Ten List
Chapter 11 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 12. The Chemical Senses: Olfactory and Gustatory Systems, and the Neural Substrate of Swallowing
Richard D. Andreatta and Nicole M. Etter

Introduction and Learning Objectives
Olfactory System: An Overview

Olfactory Receptors and the Transduction of Odorants

ORN Cilia Are Susceptible to Environmental Pollutants
Odorant Transduction Requires G-Coupled Receptors

Odorants Are Detected by Different Combinations of ORN Receptors
Olfactory Bulb Consists of Glomeruli
Olfactory Bulb Projection Neurons Target the Olfactory Cortex

Gustatory System: An Overview

Gustatory Receptors and Transduction
Distribution of Taste Sensitivity Across the Surface of the Tongue
Taste Buds Consist of Collections of Taste Receptor Cells
Tastant Transduction Process

Salty and Sour Tastants Are Transduced by Ion Channels
Sweet, Bitter, and Umami Transduction Uses G-Coupled Protein Receptors

Central Gustatory Pathway
Central Representation of Taste
Dysfunction in the Chemical Senses

Chemosensory Changes Associated With Typical Aging
Chemosensory Changes Associated With Surgical Intervention
Chemosensory Changes Associated With Injury or Disease

The Neural Substrate of Normal Feeding and Swallowing

The Aerodigestive Tract Supports Different Modes of Behavior
Brief Overview of the Process for Feeding and Swallowing

Oral Preparatory and Oral Transport Phases of Swallowing
Pharyngeal and Esophageal Phases of Swallowing

 Neural Elements Participating in the Process of Swallowing

Olfactory Nerve Contribution
Trigeminal Nerve Contribution
Facial Nerve Contribution
Glossopharyngeal Nerve Contribution
Vagus Nerve Contribution
Hypoglossal Nerve Contribution
Spinal Nerve Contribution

Brainstem Respiratory Centers Are Voluntarily Modulated During Swallowing
Cortical and Subcortical Control of Swallowing
Control and Function of the Swallowing Central Pattern Generator

The Top Ten List
Chapter 12 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Section 3. Motor Systems


Chapter 13. Muscle Tissue: Structure, Mechanisms of Contraction, and the Motor Unit
Richard D. Andreatta and Timothy Butterfield

Introduction and Learning Objectives
Types of Muscle Tissue
Hierarchical Organization of Skeletal Muscle Tissue: From Bundle to Fiber
The Muscle Fiber (Cell)

Internal Structure of the Muscle Fiber

Organization and Structure of the Myofibril

Myofibrils Are Serial Collections of Sarcomeres
Molecular Subcomponents of the Sarcomere

Structure and Function of Myosin
The Function of Actin and Accessory Proteins in the Sarcomere
Titin: A Giant Among Proteins

Neuromuscular Junction Mediates the Neural Signal That Starts Muscle Contraction
Contraction Physiology: Excitation-Coupling in the Muscle Fiber
Contraction Physiology: Cross-Bridge Formation
Length-Tension Relationship of Muscle Tissue

Investigating the Contraction Properties of Muscle Tissue

Muscle Forces Increase With Firing Rate of the Lower Motoneuron
Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types

The Motor Unit

Size Principle of Motor Unit Recruitment

Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Contraction: Alpha-Gamma Coactivation

The Top Ten List
Chapter 13 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 14. Motor Control Systems of the CNS
Richard D. Andreatta

Introduction and Learning Objectives
Neuromotor Control Elements of the CNS: Direct Versus Indirect Systems
Descending Tracts of the Direct Motor Control System

Descending Motor Pathways From the Cerebrum: Corticospinal and Corticobulbar Tracts
Anatomical Course of the Corticospinal and Corticobulbar Pathways

Corticospinal Tract: Course and Function
Corticobulbar Tract: Course and Function
The Curious Case of UMN Versus LMN Facial Palsy

Descending Motor Pathways Originating From the Brainstem

Rubrospinal Tract
Vestibulospinal Tract
Reticulospinal Tract
Tectospinal Tract

Cerebral Motor Area Underlying Voluntary Control

Organization and Functional Mapping of M1
Discovery of the Inner Workings of M1
Different Neuron Firing Patterns in M1
M1 Uses Population Codes to Generate Higher-Order Performance Features of an Action
Sensory Inputs to M1 Provide Real-Time Information About Body’s Current State
Developing a Broader Understanding of Action and Behavioral Performance

The Premotor Cortex

PMA Activity Is Strongly Associated With Upper Limb and Hand Action
Supplementary Motor Area Activity Is a Necessary Element for Speech Motor Control
The Cingulate Motor Map Links Action to Emotion

Neuroplasticity in Motor Maps of the Cortex
Deficits in Motor Control Can Result From Damage to Upper or Lower Motoneurons
Indirect Motor Control Systems

Basal Ganglia is a Selector of Movement
The Caudate and Putamen and Their Connections
Globus Pallidus and Its Connections
Subthalamic Nucleus and Its Connections
Substantia Nigra and Its Connections
Schematic Organization and Functional Overview of the BG Nuclei
The Direct and Indirect Pathways of the Basal Ganglia

Direct Pathway Operation in the BG
Indirect Pathway Operation in the BG
Role of the SNpc in the BG

Lesions to the Basal Ganglia Can Produce Hypo- or Hyperkinetic Deficits

Hypokinetic Disorders of the BG Are Related to Indirect Pathway Influence
Hyperkinetic Disorders of the BG Are Related to Direct Pathway Overactivity
Complexity of Basal Ganglia Interconnections Complicates the Simple Correlation Between Structure, Lesion and Behavioral Effects

Cerebellum Operates to Coordinate and Refine Movements
External and Internal Anatomical Features of the Cerebellum
Functional Divisions of the Cerebellum and Their Input/Output Pathways
Functional Cerebellar Areas Form Processing Circuits

Vestibulocerebellar Circuit
Spinocerebellar Circuit
Cerebrocerebellar Circuit

Consequences of Cerebellar Lesion Reveals the Operation of the System

The Autonomic Nervous System is the Motor Control System for Homeostasis

Pathway Organization of the Sympathetic System
Pathway Organization of the Parasympathetic System

The Top Ten List
Chapter 14 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 15. Introduction to Motor Learning and Control Principles of Behavior
Patrick O. McKeon and Richard D. Andreatta

Introduction and Learning Objectives
The Understanding of Motor Control Began With an Idea
What Exactly Is Motor Control?
From Perception to Action
Foundations of Motor Control Theory

Two Systems of Motor Control: Open-Loop Systems
Two Systems of Motor Control: Closed-Loop Systems
The Importance of Reflexes in Motor Control: Insights by Sir Charles Sherrington
Nikolai Bernstein: A Russian Revolutionary Figure in Motor Control

Bernstein’s Problem and Motor Equivalence

From Bernstein to Current Motor Control Theories

The General Motor Program Theory
The Dynamic Systems Theory of Motor Control
Contrasting Motor Program Theory and Dynamic Systems Theory
Perception and Action Are Coupled According to Dynamic Systems Theory

The Dynamics of Motor Skill Acquisition

An Example of Sensorimotor Skill Acquisition: Learning to Dance

Concluding Thoughts on Motor Control Theory

The Top Ten List
Chapter 15 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities


Section 4. Neural Substrates of Speech, Language, and Hearing

Chapter 16. Neural Substrate of Speech and Voice
Stephen M. Tasko

Introduction and Learning Objectives
Speech and Vocalization Are Complex Behaviors
Neural Substrates of Speech and Vocalization: How Do We Know What We Know?
Peripheral Nerves Involved in Speech and Vocalization

Efferent Pathways

Respiratory Subsystem
Phonatory Subsystem
Velopharyngeal Subsystem
Oral Articulatory Subsystem
Descending Pathways Onto Speech Motor Neuron Pools

Afferent Pathways

Subcortical Structures Involved in Vocalization

Reticular Formation
Periaqueductal Gray Matter
Thalamus (Ventrobasal Complex)
Basal Ganglia

Cortical Bases of Speech Motor Control and Vocalization

Primary Motor and Somatosensory Cortices
Inferior Frontal Gyrus (Broca’s Area)
Supplementary Motor Areas
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
Supramarginal Gyrus

Neural Basis of Auditory Processing and Perception of Speech
Sensorimotor Adaptation During Speech Production
Putting it All Together: Computational Models of Speech Production

The Directions Into Velocities of Articulators Model (DIVA)
DIVA - Feedfoward and Feedback Control System Operation

The Development and Refinement of Speech Motor Abilities
Selected Neurological Disorders of Speech and Vocalization

Motor Speech Disorders: Dysarthrias
Other Speech Production Deficits

The Top Ten List
Chapter 16 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 17. Neural Substrate of Language
Jessica D. Richardson and Sarah Grace H. Dalton

Introduction and Learning Objectives
Language: What Is it Really?

Neuroscience and Language Acquisition
Neuroscience and Language Evolution

Brain Areas Involved in Language Processing
Models of Language Production

The “Classic” Language Model: Wernicke-Geschwind Model
Dual Path Models of Language Processing

Models of Communication, Language Evolution, and Development
Neurological Factors and Correlated Features of Language Disorders

Traumatic Brain Injuries
Right Hemisphere

Harnessing the Ability of the Brain to Change for Language Rehabilitation

Neuroplasticity and Constraint-Induced Therapy Approaches

The Original Idea: Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy
Constraint-Induced Language Therapy

Neural Substrate of Language Recovery Following Stroke
Parting Thoughts on the Neurorehabilitation of Language

The Top Ten List
Chapter 17 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities

Chapter 18. Neural Substrate of Hearing: Central Auditory Pathway and the Auditory Cortices
Anne D. Olson

Introduction and Learning Objectives
Central Auditory Pathway Supports Auditory Skills We Use Daily

An Analogy: The CAP as a Highway System

The Central Auditory Pathway

Cochlear Nucleus (CN): Anatomy and Physiology

CN Cell Types, Responses, and Function
Frequency Preservation in the CN
Temporal Preservation in the CN
Intensity Preservation in the CN

Superior Olivary Complex: Anatomy and Physiology

Low-Frequency Sound Localization Is Processed in the MSOC
High-Frequency Sound Localization Requires Action of the LSOC and MNTB
SOC Allows for the Integration of Sounds From Both Ears

Lateral Lemniscus: Anatomy and Physiology
Inferior Colliculus: Anatomy and Physiology
Medial Geniculate Body: Anatomy and Physiology

Auditory Cortical Areas

The Primary Auditory Cortex

Deeper Insights Into the Properties of the Primary Auditory Cortex
Role of the Auditory Cortex in Speech and Vocalization

The Secondary Auditory Cortex
The Auditory Association Areas
Neuroimaging of the Human Auditory Cortex Reveals Distinct Features

Surprise! The Auditory System Has Efferent Pathways

Stapedial Reflex Response is Mediated Through the SOC
Function of the Olivocochlear Bundle

The Auditory Brainstem Response
The Top Ten List
Chapter 18 Abbreviations
Study Questions and Activities


Richard D. Andreatta

Richard D. Andreatta, PhD, is an ASHA Fellow and a full professor in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) and the Rehabilitation and Health Sciences Doctoral Program in the College of Health Sciences at the University of Kentucky. Dr. Andreatta received his PhD in Speech Physiology and Neural Science from Indiana University, Bloomington, and completed postdoctoral work in animal laryngeal neurophysiology at the National Institutes of Health. He serves as the director of undergraduate studies in CSD and teaches courses in the speech sciences, speech anatomy and physiology, communication neuroscience, rehabilitation neuroplasticity, and dynamic systems theory. Dr. Andreatta is a recipient of the University of Kentucky’s Great Teacher Award and the UK College of Health Sciences Kingston Award for Teaching Excellence. His research interests include sensory neuroscience of the human vocal tract, laryngeal muscle biology, and the neurophysiology of speech production. Dr. Andreatta lives in Lexington, Kentucky with his wife, three children, and golden retriever.

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