Cognitive and Communication Interventions: Neuroscience Applications for Speech-Language Pathologists

First Edition

Martha S. Burns

Details: 285 pages, B&W, Softcover, 7" x 10"

ISBN13: 978-1-63550-292-3

© 2021 | Coming Soon

Release Date: 11/02/2020

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Understanding the recent science about how therapy changes the brain can empower clinicians to face the challenges of increasingly demanding medical and educational settings.  However, many speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are unaware of the vast impact new neuroscience research has on clinical practice. Cognitive and Communication Interventions: Neuroscience Applications for Speech-Language Pathologists is a practical guide which informs and enables SLP’s, clinical psychologists, and other therapeutic professionals to use new research to enhance their clinical outcomes.

Although based on independent neuroscience principles and research, this unique book is designed to be a readable and scientifically sound clinical guidebook. Written with the busy clinician in mind, this professional resource uses accessible, easy-to-understand language to walk readers through the complexities of neuroscience and provide workable strategies for application.

The beginning chapters break down important concepts, such as neuroplasticity, environmental stressors, and connectomics, to create a base of understanding. The middle chapters delve into recent investigations of factors that potentially affect typical brain development, as well as disrupt connectomics. The final chapters provide neuroscience considerations for intervention, including the “What, How, and When” of therapy and other important considerations for individualizing and maximizing outcomes.

Throughout the book, clinicians will also find case studies that provide examples of the practical applications of neuroscience research and study questions to improve memory and inference.

Reviews

“This is a much-needed textbook providing comprehensive neurodevelopmental concepts…It is written in an easy-to-understand comprehensive format for graduate students, new, and even experienced Speech-Language Pathologists.” 
 — Kathryn Atkinson, MA, Master Clinical Educator in Speech-Language Pathology, Central Michigan University

“This text is needed greater in our field. As we continue to expand our knowledge in neuroscience, it is crucial that we implement that into our clinical practice. Dr. Burns shows why evidence-based practice is imperative for cognitive and communication interventions.  Information can be applied in many ways to help not only students but professionals as well.  I cannot wait for this book in final form!”
 — Kerri Phillips, SLPD, Professor and Program Director for Speech-Language Pathology, Louisiana Tech University

“This is an excellent, advanced-level text on the application of neuroscience concepts to the assessment and treatment of disorders of cognition and communication. The text serves as an excellent summary of past research findings and present developments in brain science.”
 — Kelly Salmon, SLPD, Assistant Professor, Department of Speech Pathology, Salus University

“This is a seminal text – a game changing book...The author writes with an elegance of clarity that belies the sheer depth and complexity of content...no other text bridges the unnecessary divide which persists between the educational and medical realms of our professions. Marty traverses the landscapes of the brain and brings it to life, transforming potentially overwhelming complexity into applicable tenets and principles for the What, How, and When of doing therapy to cause neural and functional changes.”
 — Jill K. Fahy, MA, Associate Professor, Department of Communication Disorders and Sciences, Eastern Illinois University

“Before reading this text, I knew the principles of neuroplasticity and use them regularly in practice. I only had a vague understanding of the neuroscience behind them. I now have a more detailed foundational and conceptual understanding of the neuroscience principles; this allows me to apply my knowledge more effectively and with more conviction.”
 — Maggie Mathieson, MS, Spalding Rehabilitation Hospital, Aurora, Colorado

“The strength of this text is the integration of a great deal of neuroscience research into clinical extensions/applications for SLPs/AuDs. There is so much depth but it is presented in a manner that is relatively easy to understand, given some prior knowledge of the topics”
 — Jerry K. Hoepner, PhD, Associate Professor, Communication Sciences + Disorders, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

“Based on the historical perspectives and updates on localization and connectionism, the book truly captures the spirit of neurolinguistic and neuropsychological explanations for various disorders, while providing a solid background on neuroscience-driven therapy approaches for clients with neurogenic disorders.”
 — Jayanti Ray, PhD, Professor, Communication Disorders, Southeast Missouri State University

“Although the audience for this book is Speech-Language Pathologists, it would also be a great resource for other related fields such as neurolinguistics, psycholingustics, and neurology.”
— Vijayachandra Ramachandra, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Marywood University

Preface
Introduction and Chapter Overview  

Chapter 1. NEUROSCIENCE OVERVIEW AND UPDATE t
A.    INTRODUCTORY NEURODEVELOPMENTAL AND ACQUIRED NEUROCOGNITIVE CASE STUDIES

B.    HOW WE GOT HERE – THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
a.    Introduction 
b.    Early studies of brain and language
c.    Brain science localization merges with connectionism
d.    The technology era broadens the scientific landscape
e.    Network theory advances through enhanced imaging techniques
f.     Summary

C.    NETWORK NEUROSCIENCE – AN INTRODUCTION 
a.    Size, scope and clinical relevance
b.    Network Organization
c.    Summary and Proposed Clinical Applications


Chapter 2: HUMAN BRAIN:  ORAL, GESTURAL AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE NETWORKS
A.    OVERVIEW OF NEUROANATOMICAL STRUCTURE: THE TRIUNE BRAIN
a.    Lower Triune Brain Levels: Automatic biological functions and the “Emotional Brain”
b.    The highest Triune Brain Level: The neocortex
c.    Clinical applications of the Triune Brain Model with Case Study


B.    Network Neuroscience of Language and Communication
a.    Top-Down/Bottom-up Language Network Components 
b.    Ventral and Dorsal Stream
c.    Phonology
d.    Syntax
e.    Semantics
f.    Prosody
g.    Gesture
h.    Pragmatics
i.    Written language
j.    Summary

Chapter 3: COGNTIVE NEUROSCIENCE AND CONNECTOMICS APPLICATIONS TO NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS 
A.    Network Neuroscience of Cognitive Functions 
a.    Overview of Cognitive Functions
b.    Network Neuroscience of Memory
c.    Network Neuroscience of Executive Functions

B. Human connectomics: Tying architecture and biological mechanisms to brain disorders 
a. Connectomics – Detailed wiring diagrams of brain and biological mechanisms
b. Connectomic features relevant to Neurological Disorders: Hubs, Edges, Directionality, Weight, and Network Segregation/ Integration
c. Chemistry: brain modulation

CHAPTER 4: HOW THE HUMAN BRAIN CHANGES: NEUROGENETICS, NEUROPLASTICITY IN MATURATION, RECOVERY, AND ENVIRONMENT 
A.    INTRODUCTION


B.    NEUROGENETICS
a.    Introduction
b.    RNA and DNA basics
c.    Genetic variation and human brain differences 
d.    Epigenetics
e.    Genetic Variations and Disorders of Speech, Language and Cognition
f.    Summary


C.    NEUROMATURATION AND NEUROPLASTICITY
A.    Fetal Brain Development
b.    Neonatal brain development – Birth to five years – brain volume measures 
c.    Neonatal brain development – Birth to five years – white matter measures 
d.    The adolescent brain – a second sensitive period
e.    Variability in development


f.    Personalized medicine adaptations
D.    NEUROPLASTICITY

E.    INTERACTIONAL SYNCHRONY: BRAIN TO BRAIN FUNCTIONS

Chapter 5: ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN BRAIN MATURATION OF LANGUAGE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS 
A.    Introduction

B.    Socioeconomic status  (SES)
a.    Introduction
b.    SES effects on brain maturation: structure and function
c.    SES Effects Associated with Malnutrition
d.    Interaction of SES and Genetics
e.    SES Effects on Language, Working Memory and Processing Speed
f.    SES differences in parent language and other parent-child interactions
g.    Other Executive Functions: Attention and Self-Regulation
h.    Individual Differences
i.     SES Reading
j.     SES and Academic Outcomes 

C.    Stress
a.    Introduction
b.    From positive to adverse effects of stress
c.    Educational implications
d.    Effects of cognitive development
D.    Adverse Childhood Experiences and toxic substance exposure
a.    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)
b.    Toxic Substance Exposures
c.    Summary
E.    Summary and Clinical/Educational Applications

Chapter 6: CONNECTOMICS & GENETICS OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL COGNITIVE AND COMMUNICATION DISORDERS 
A.    Introduction

B.    Autism Spectrum Disorders
a. Introduction
b. Genetics
c. Underlying brain mechanisms
d. Environmental factors


C.    Developmental Language Disorders
a.    Introduction
b.    Phonological Deficit Hypothesis
c.    Cognitive Systems: Learning and Memory
d.    Statistical Learning
D.    Developmental Dyslexia
a.    Introduction
b.    Genetics
c.    Underlying brain mechanisms
d.    Perceptual and cognitive factors
e.    Environmental Factors


E.    Childhood apraxia of speech (developmental dyspraxia affecting speech)


Chapter 7: CONNECTOMICS & GENETICS OF ACQUIRED COGNITIVE AND COMMUNICATION DISORDERS 
A.    Introduction

B.    Concussion and Traumatic Brain Injury  - mechanisms and clinical features
a.    Introduction
b.    Brain mechanisms and related symptomatology
C.    Aphasia - status of neuroscience research
a.    Introduction
b.    Brain mechanisms and related symptomatology
D.    Right Hemisphere Disorder - status of neuroscience research
a.    Introduction
b.    Brain mechanisms and related symptomatology
E.    Progressive Neurological Diseases (Alzheimer's Disease, Lewy Body Dementia, other dementias) 
a.    Introduction
b.    Lewy Body Dementias
c.    Alzheimer’s Dementia, MCI and PART
d.    Other dementias
e.    Summary


Chapter 8 HOW THERAPY CHANGES THE BRAIN 
A.    Introduction and overview of effects of intervention

B.    The ‘What’ of therapy – How to select effective task specific activities
a.    Introduction
b.    Evidence-Based Practice in Neurodevelopmental Disorders – State of the Science
c.    Evidence-Based Practice in Acquired Neurological Disorders – State of the Science
C.    The ‘How’ of therapy 
a.    Introduction
b.    How therapy upregulates excitatory neuromodulators associated with neuroplasticity: dopamine, noradrenalin and acetylcholine. 
c.    Regulatory Neuromodulator of Serotonin
d.    Balancing Top-Down Executive/Regulatory intervention with task specific activities
e.    Summary

D.    THE ‘WHEN’ OF THERAPY
a.    Issues related to neuroplastic periods: early 'optimal period' - birth to five years and the later sensitive period - the adolescent brain
b.    Issues related to recovery periods following brain injury
c.    Intensity of therapy - recent research
d.    Summary

Chapter 9 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS: MAXIMIZING THERAPEUTIC OUTCOMES 
A.    Individualizing therapy to the unique needs of each client or patient

B.    Maximizing therapeutic commitment: Promoting a safe, trusting therapeutic alliance 
C.    Teacher Parent, Family and Interpersonal collaboration
a.    Teacher collaboration
b.    Parent collaboration
c.    Family Collaboration with Acquired Neurocognitive Disorders
d.    Summary

D.    Behavioral academic and vocational adaptations: Building goal directed behavior in adolescents and adults

E.    Technological adjunctive approaches that are evidence-based to increase therapeutic dosage

F.    Summary

Appendices
I  A Short Syntax Overview 
II ICD-11 Language Disorders
III ICD-11 Dementias
IV Recent  Clinical Resources for Task Sele
 

Martha S. Burns

Martha S. Burns, PhD has been a practicing speech language pathologist in the Chicago area for over 40 years. She serves on the Faculty of Northwestern University, in the area of behavioral and cognitive neuroscience. Dr. Burns is a Fellow of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and has received honors from Northwestern University, other universities, hospitals, professional organizations. She has authored 3 books and over 100 book chapters and articles Dr. Burns consults with many school districts around the world. She presents 75-100 invited in-services, keynotes, webinars and continuing education courses world-wide each year on neuroscience applications to education and clinical practice.

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