Consuming and Producing Research in Communication Sciences and Disorders: Developing Power of Professor

First Edition

Robert Goldfarb

Details: 280 pages, B&W, Softcover, 7" x 10"

ISBN13: 978-1-63550-067-7

© 2021

Release Date: 09/16/2019

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Consuming and Producing Research in Communication Sciences and Disorders is an exciting new textbook designed for undergraduate research methods in communication sciences and disorders (CSD) programs. It is also appropriate for first-year graduate students taking research methods courses in speech-language pathology and audiology. The text guides students in attaining the competencies required to consume, produce, and disseminate research; and students will have the knowledge and skills that are necessary and sufficient to conduct research as is consistent with the duties of an academic professor. The text reviews what obligations an individual, professor or not, has before being permitted to do research. The emphasis is on clinically-oriented professionals who can perform the research associated with professors.

Part I on Consuming Research in CSD includes academic-clinical integration of research, as well as information required for consumption of research such as research ethics, the scientific method, types of research, and how to critique a journal article and a diagnostic test. Part II on Producing Research in CSD helps guide the undergraduate student in producing a capstone project or senior thesis and the master’s student in producing a graduate thesis or research project. Part II also addresses mentoring, the Institutional Review Board, and conducting academic and clinical research. Part III addresses Disseminating Research in CSD, from the traditional (presenting and publishing academic and clinical research) to the non-traditional (marketing, social media, and new technologies).

Key Features

  • Each chapter begins with an Introduction and Learning Objectives to set the scene and prepare the student for what is covered.
  • Advanced Study Questions end each chapter and allow the student to review their skills.
  • Boxes throughout the text highlight key points and explore topics in more depth.
  • A PluralPlus companion website includes PowerPoint lecture slides, a sample syllabus, and quizzes for instructors and supplementary resources for students.

Introduction

Acknowledgments

Reviewers

Part I. Consuming Research in CSD

Chapter 1. Developing Power of Professor: The Nature of Research in CSD

Introduction

Learning Objectives

Why Professors and Clinicians do Research

Research and Development (R & D) versus Objective Research

Clinical Research: A Case Study

Skepticism

Power of Professor

References

Chapter 2. Academic-Clinical Integration of Research

Introduction

Learning Objectives

Types of Research Evidence

Levels of Research Evidence

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

         ICF

        Clinical Trials

Aphasia

Dementia

TBI

Dysarthria

AOS

AAC

SLI

ASD   

         Stuttering

         Voice Disorders

Best Practices and Evidence-Based Practice

A Model of Therapy

Some Clinical Research Concerns

Dosage of Therapy

Should Exercises and Practice be Massed or Distributed?

The Adequate Stimulus

Implications of Noncompliance

Advanced Study

References

Chapter 3. Ethics of Research

Introduction: Principles of Research

Learning Objectives

The Rules of Ethics

Rule 1

Rule 2

Rule 3

Rule 4

Rule 5

Rule 6

Rule 7

Unintended Consequences of Research

Negative: Rapist Roosters

Positive: Curb Cuts

NIH/CITI Online Training Course

The Belmont Report

Introduction

Respect for Persons

Beneficence

Justice

Ethical Blindness and Society’s Responses

The Dachau Hypothermia “Study” and Other Unethical Research

The Nuremburg Code

The Declaration of Helsinki

The Tudor Study

AAA and ASHA Codes of Ethics

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)

Conclusion

Advanced Study

References

Chapter 4. The Scientific Method

Introduction

Learning Objectives

The Scientific Method

The Rules of Science

Empirical Verification

Operational Definition

Controlled Observation

Statistical Generalization

Empirical Confirmation

The Scientific Method versus Common Sense or Conventional Wisdom

Psychological Verification

Verbal Definition

Uncontrolled Observation

Overgeneralization

Psychological Confirmation

The Scientific Method and Pseudoscience

Untestable

Unchanged

Confirming Evidence

Anecdotal Evidence

Inadequate Evidence

Avoiding Peer Review

Conclusion

Advanced Study

References

Chapter 5. Types of Research

Introduction

Learning Objectives

Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Non-Experimental Designs

Group Experimental Design

Quasi-Experimental Designs

Single-Subject and Case Studies

            Controlled Single-Subject Experiments

            Case Study Research

The A-B-A-B Design

Multiple-Baseline Design

Proof of Concept and Pilot Studies; Phase O, I, II, III, and IV Trials

Pilot Study or Pilot Experiment

Some Examples of Published Pilot Studies in CSD

Proof-of-Concept Studies

Group Designs

Quantitative Designs

Qualitative Designs

Mixed-Methods Designs

Retrospective Research

Strengths

Weaknesses

Survey Research

Strengths

Weaknesses

Longitudinal Studies (Developmental Research)

Strengths

Weaknesses

Translational Research

Advanced Study

References

Chapter 6. Really Basic Statistics

Introduction

Learning Objectives

Some Statistical Concepts

Statistics

Parametric and Non-Parametric Statistics

Random Sampling and Random Assignment

Degrees of Freedom

Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics (Mark Twain): The p Value

Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion

Central Tendency

Dispersion

All You Need Are Sums of Squares

Calculation of Variance and Standard Deviation

Sample CSD Experiment

Calculation of t for Dependent Groups

Sample Calculation for One-Way Analysis of Variance

Calculation of the Correlation Coefficient r

The Chi-Square (Χ2) Test of Independence

Are We Playing with Loaded Dice?

Presenting the Data: Frequency Distributions, Histograms, Line Graphs

The Bell-Shaped Curve

The Histogram

The Frequency Polygon

Recipe for Repeated Measure Analysis on SPSS

Definitions of Terms

Statistics of the Future: Bayesian Inference

Advanced Study

References

Chapter 7. Journal Article Critique

Introduction

Learning Objectives

Structure of a Journal Article

Title

Abstract

Introduction

Methods

Results

Conclusion and Discussion

References

Threats to Internal and External Validity of Experiments

Internal Validity and Factors That Affect It

External Validity and Factors That Affect It

Peer Review

Examples of Peer Review

Advanced Study

References

Chapter 8. Diagnostic Test Critique

Introduction

Learning Objectives

Levels of Evidence in Diagnostic Tests

Problems in Diagnosis: Dumping it in the Chocolate

Psycholinguistic Studies

Neuroimaging Studies

Threats to Accurate Diagnosis

Increasing Accurate Diagnosis

The Diagnostic Test Manual

Theory and Development

Administration and Scoring

Reliability and Validity of Tests and Measurements

Reliability

Validity

Choosing Which Test to Give

Advanced Study

References

 

Part II. Producing Research in CSD

Chapter 9. Mentoring

Introduction

Learning Objectives

What Is the Mentor-Protégé or Mentor-Mentee (hereafter called mentor-student) Relationship?

Definition of Mentoring

Peer Mentoring

Distance Mentoring

Mentoring of Student Clinicians by Clients

Mentor-Student Relationships

Does Mentoring Work?

Academic Mentoring

Other Types of Mentoring

Managing Up

Summary

Do Being Older, Having More Experience, and Having Greater Professional Authority Qualify an Individual To Be a Mentor?

What Are the Ethical Concerns of a Relationship With a Large Power Differential?

Power Differentials

What Kinds of Mentoring Can You Expect?

Academic Mentorship

Clinical Mentorship

Teaching Mentorship

What Is the ASHA S.T.E.P. Mentor Model?

How Does Gender Affect the Mentor-Mentee Relationship?

Mentoring Programs for Females

Are e-Supervision and e-Mentoring the Wave of the Future?

E-Mentoring

E-Supervision

Conclusion

Advanced Study

References

Chapter 10. Institutional Review Board (IRB) Research Approval

Introduction

Learning Objectives

Overview

University Policies

Student Research Application

IRB Ethics

Location and Membership

History of the IRB 

The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) Syphilis Studies in Tuskegee, Alabama from 1932-1972

The Nazi Holocaust Experiments and the Resulting Doctor’s Trial at Nuremberg, Germany, 1946-1947

USPHS Sexually Transmitted Diseases Inoculation Study, Guatemala, 1946-1948

Pfizer Trovan Study, Nigeria, 1996

Dates and Events That Led to Today’s Version of the IRB

Completing an IRB Review Form

Brief Description of the Project’s Purposes, Methodology, and Design

Dates for Initiation and Completion of the Project

Number and Characteristics of Participants

Method of Recruitment

Potential Risks, Stresses, or Discomforts, and the Precautions Taken to Minimize Them

Debriefing Form, Sign-Up Sheet, Advertisement

An Example from CSD

Advanced Study

References

Chapter 11. Conducting Clinical Research

Introduction

Learning Objectives

Developing a Clinical Hypothesis

Setting Goals

Therapy Objectives

Data Collection

The Operant Conditioning Paradigm

Schedules of Reinforcement

Strategies for Data Collection

Experimental Design: Case Report or Single-Subject Multiple Baseline

Disseminating Results

Advanced Study

References

Chapter 12. Conducting Academic Research

Introduction

Learning Objectives

Selecting a Research Topic and Finding a Mentor

Selecting a Research Topic

Finding a Mentor

Capstone Projects

The Master’s Thesis

Doctor of Audiology (AuD) Research Requirements

PhD in Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences Research Requirements

Clinical Doctorate in Speech Language Pathology (SLP-D) Research Requirements

Doctor of Clinical Science (ClinScD/CsCD) Research Requirements

Funding Sources

Peer Review for Grant Applications

Advanced Study

References

 

Part III. Disseminating Research in CSD

Chapter 13. Dissemination by Publication

Introduction

Learning Objectives

The Article in a Peer-Reviewed Journal

Advantages and Disadvantages of Peer Review

Open Access Journals

The Editorial Process

Submission Decisions

Responding to Ad Hoc Peer Reviewers

Books and Portions of Books

How Do You Know If a Book Has Been Peer Reviewed?

Writing Style

Publishing a Contribution to a Book

Advanced Study

References

Chapter 14. Oral Presentation of Research

Introduction

Learning Objectives

Conference Presentations

Submitting an Abstract

Preparing the Presentation

Rehearsing the Presentation

Practice-Based Networks

Educational Technology

Use Your Computer to Record a Research Presentation to YouTube

Use Your iPad or iPhone to Make a YouTube Recording

Narrating PowerPoint Presentations

Securing Funding for Travel and Expenses

            Government Support

Support From CSD Faculty Members

Support From the University Administration

Advanced Study

References

Chapter 15. Non-Traditional Dissemination of Research

Introduction

Learning Objectives

Challenges to Dissemination

Marketing and Distribution

Web 2.0 Technologies

Disseminating Research Through Social Media

Disseminating Research to Communities

Summary

Support Groups for Communication Disorders

AAC

Aphasia

Autism

Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Cleft Lip and Palate

Cochlear Implants

Dysphagia

Hearing Loss

Laryngectomy

Stuttering

Advocating for the Professions

In the News

University News

Association Publications

Conclusion

Advanced Study

References

 

Index

Robert Goldfarb

Robert Goldfarb, PhD, FASHA, is Professor (with the Professor Recognition Award) of Communication Sciences and Disorders at Adelphi University and Emeritus Professor of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences at Lehman College and The Graduate Center, CUNY, where he was also Executive Officer. He was a Fulbright Specialist in Applied Linguistics/TEFL in Bogotá, Colombia in 2013. He has published in the areas of adult aphasia, the language of dementia, and the language of schizophrenia, and is also co-author of two tests: The Stocker Probe for Fluency and Language (1995) and Time-Altered Word Association Tests (TAWAT, 2013). He edited and contributed chapters to two books and co-authored six others. He is the recipient of major awards and highest honors from New York City and New York State professional associations.

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