Evaluating and Conducting Research in Audiology

First Edition

Vinaya Manchaiah, Eldré W. Beukes, Ross J. Roeser

Details: 400 pages, B&W, Softcover, 7" x 10"

ISBN13:  978-1-63550-190-2

© 2022 | Coming Soon

Release Date: 02/26/2021

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Price: $109.95

Available for purchase starting 01/29/2021

Evaluating and Conducting Research in Audiology is the first research methods textbook that is specific to the field of audiology and designed to serve as an academic textbook for audiology graduate students. This text can also be accessible for audiology practitioners who are interested in clinical and applied research. The comprehensive coverage includes materials for multiple courses within audiology degree programs, including research methods, analysis of professional literature, evidence-based practice, and capstone research projects.

The text provides knowledge that is required in evaluating, conducting and disseminating research. The book is separated into three sections: (a) research methods; (b) evidence-based practice; and (c) conducting and disseminating research. Together, these sections provide a detailed coverage of the of research methods that are relevant to conducting research, particularly in the field of Audiology. 

Key Features

  • Learning outcomes at the beginning of each chapter
  • End of chapter reviews including key points and study questions
  • Audiology-specific examples, research methods, and study designs
  • “Golden Nugget” boxes throughout the book containing valuable information related to the critical concepts 
  • In-depth discussion of qualitative research methods, survey research methods, and systematic reviews to motivate students and early career researchers to consider these methodologies in their research
  • Classroom-tested book chapters
  • Access to a PluralPlus companion website with PowerPoint lecture slides for instructors and study questions and related readings for students
     

Foreword Jim and Susan Jerger

Foreword by Kevin J Munro, PhD

Preface

Acknowledgements

Reviewers

About the Authors

 

Section A: Research Methods in Audiology

Chapter 1. The Research Process
Learning Outcomes
The Role of Research within Audiology
Defining Research
 Usual Practice
 Service Evaluation
 Clinical Audit
 Overview of the Research Process
     Stage 1:  Conceiving the Study
     Reviewing the Existing Literature  
     Developing the Scope and Aim of the Study
     Identifying and Formulating Research Questions
     Creating Hypotheses
     Stage 2: Designing the Study
     Research Variables 
     Experimental versus Non-Experimental Research 
     Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research Methodologies
     Research Compliance 
     Stage 3: Data Collection
     Data Collection Format
     Type and Amount of Data Collected
     Data Collection Setting
     Data Management 
     Stage 4: Analyzing Data and Drawing Conclusions
     Inspecting the Data for Errors
     Statistical Analysis
     Drawing Conclusions 
     Stage 5: Dissemination
 Translating Research into Clinical Practice
     The Research Proposal 
         The Research Team
         Feasibility of Research Project
             Outlining the Resources Required 
             Planning the Time Scale
     Considerations for Recruiting and Maintaining Participants
     Preregistration of Studies
 Key Points
 Review Questions
References

Chapter 2. Research Compliance
 Learning Outcomes
 Research Compliance
 Ethical Considerations for Human and Animal Research
     Ethical Codes 
         Then Nuremberg Code
         The Declaration of Helsinki 
         The Belmont Report
     Ethical Principles
         Good Clinical Practice
         Research Principles Outlined by Professional Associations
     Data Protection 
         Confidentiality and Privacy
         The European General Data Protection Act (GDPR)
         The United States Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
     Research with Vulnerable Groups
     Informed Consent
         Ways of Providing the Necessary Informed Consent
         Capacity to Consent
     Research Involving Animals
 The Ethical Application Process
     Applying for Ethical Approval
         Ethical Application in Settings with Ethical Review Boards
         Ethical Applications in Independent Settings
         Research Ethics for International Research
 Research Integrity
     Research Fudging
     Conflict of Interest
    Credit for Intellectual Effort
         Types of Copyright License 
 Active Partnerships to Increase Research Quality and Compliance
     Patient and Public Involvement in Research
     Reporting PPI Involvement in Academic Publications
 Key Points
 Review Questions
References

Chapter 3. Research Methods
 Learning Outcomes
 Defining Scientific Methods
 Scientific Theory, Law and Models
     Scientific Theory
     Scientific Law
     Scientific Model
 History and Philosophy of Science
     History of Science
     Philosophy of Science
         Naïve Realism
         Anti-realism
         Critical Realism 
 Role of Theory in Research
     Deductive versus Inductive Inference
 Research Hierarchy: Methodology, Method, and Design
 Types of Research
     Empirical versus Non-empirical Research 
     Basic versus Applied Research 
     Animal versus Human Research 
     Descriptive versus Analytical Research 
     Exploratory versus Confirmatory Research 
         Feasibility versus Pilot Studies
     Prospective versus Retrospective Research 
     Quantitative versus Qualitative Research 
     Observational versus Experimental Research 
     Laboratory versus Field Research 
     Cross-sectional versus Longitudinal Research 
     Common Ways of Categorizing Research Studies
 Research Methodology 
     Quantitative Research 
         Variable
     Qualitative Research
     Difference and Opinion Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
     Mixed-Methods Research 
 Common Research Strategies Used in Audiology 
 Key Points
 Review Questions
References

Chapter 4. Research Design
 Learning Outcomes
 Introduction
 Research Designs
     Cross-sectional Design
     Repeated Cross-sectional Design
     Cohort Design
     Case-Control Design
     Experimental Design
         Pre-, Quasi-, and True Experimental Designs 
         A Randomized Controlled Trial
         Parallel-group versus Cross-over Experimental Designs 
         Treatment Efficacy and Effectiveness Trials
 Considerations When Choosing Research Designs
     Criteria for Quality in Quantitative Research
     Validity
     Reliability
     Generalizability
 Evaluating Clinical Research
     Quality Analysis of Studies and Level of Evidence 
     Nature of Clinical Data
     Clinical Practice Guidelines
 Rigor and Reproducibility in Scientific Research
     The Reproducibility Crisis in Research
     Best Evidence versus Best Available Evidence 
     Minimizing Bias in Research 
 Key Points 
 Review Questions
References

Chapter 5. Variables, Sampling and Sample Size
 Learning Outcomes
 Introduction
 Variables in Empirical Research
     Types of Variables
         Independent Variable
         Dependent Variable
         Extraneous Variable
         Confounding Variable
         Demographic Variable
         Environmental Variable
     Examples of Different Variables in a Study
     Variables During Data Collection and Analysis
     Levels of Measurement
 Populations and Samples
     Parameters versus Statistics
     Sample Characteristics
 Sampling Methods
     Probability Sampling
         Simple Random Sampling 
         Systematic Random Sampling
         Stratified Random Sampling
         Cluster Sampling 
     Non-probability Sampling
         Convenience Sampling
         Snowball Sampling
         Consecutive Sampling
         Quota Sampling
         Self-selection Sampling
         Purposive Sampling
         Theoretical Sampling
     Challenges in Implementing Probability Sampling Methods
         Sampling Bias
 Sample Size
     Sampling Error
     Power Analysis
         Sample Size Estimation
         Post-hoc Power Analysis
     Challenges in Recruiting Study Participants 
 Key Points
 Review Questions
References

Chapter 6. Analyzing and Interpreting Quantitative Data
 Learning Outcomes
 Introduction
 An Overview of Analyzing and Interpreting Quantitative Data
 Preparing Data for Analysis 
     Error Checking and Outliers
     Missing Data
 Describing the Data
     Measures of Central Tendency
         Mean
         Median
         Mode
     Measures of Variability
         Range
         Variance 
         Standard Deviation
         Z-Scores
         Standard Error
         Quartiles 
     Describing the Distribution
         Normal Distribution
         Skewness and Kurtosis 
         Central Limit Theorem
         Data Transformation
 Selecting Appropriate Statistical Tests
     Assumptions Required for Parametric Testing
         Assumptions of Normality 
         Homogeneity of Variance 
     Considerations When Using Parametric Statistics
     Considerations When Using Non-Parametric Statistics
 Quantitative Data Analysis 
     Hypothesis Testing 
         Specifying the Hypotheses
         Probability Values (P-value)
         One- or Two-Tailed Tests
         Degrees of Freedom
     Alternative or Complementary Approaches to Significance Testing 
         Effect Size Calculations
         Confidence Interval and Margin of Error
         Clinical Significance 
         Bayesian Analysis
     Testing Differences Between Two Means 
         T-test
         Types of t-tests
     Comparing Groups 
         Analysis of Variance
         Main Effects and Interaction Effects
         Types of Analysis of Variance
         Analysis of Covariance
         Post-hoc Testing 
     Examining Relationships Between Variables
         Correlation Analysis
         The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient 
     Predicting and Assessing the Strength of the Relationship Between Variables 
         Regression Analysis
         Non-Parametric Regression Models
     Grouping Variables 
         Factor Analysis 
         Cluster Analysis 
    Analyzing the Performance of Diagnostic Tests 
 Reporting Statistical Test Results
     Reporting the Outcome of Statistical Analysis 
     Visual Representation of the Data
 Common Pitfalls When Conducting and Reporting Statistics
 Interpreting Statistical Findings
 Key Points
 Review Questions
References

Chapter 7. Qualitative Research Methods
 Learning Outcomes
 Scope and Context of Qualitative Research
 Qualitative Research Traditions
     Grounded Theory
     Phenomenology
     Ethnography
     Ethnomethodology
     Action Research
     Narrative Research
     Case Study
 Sampling and Recruiting Participants
     Sampling Methods
         Convenience Sampling 
         Snowball Sampling
         Purposive Sampling
         Maximum Variation Sampling
         Theoretical Sampling
     Determining Sampling Method
     Sampling Adequacy
     Other Considerations when Recruiting Participants 
 Data Collection Methods and Settings
     Data Collection Methods
         Interviews
         Focus Groups
         Questionnaires
         Observations
         Document Analysis
     Employing Multiple Data Collection Methods
     Data Collection Settings
     Checking Accuracy
 Data Analysis Methods
     Two Main Approaches to Qualitative Data Analysis
     Data Analysis Steps
         Transcribing Data
         Becoming Familiar with the Data
         Data Organization
         Generating Codes
         Data Interpretation and Pattern Identification
         Tying Field Data to Research Objective(s) and Drawing Verifiable Conclusions 
     Common Qualitative Data Analysis Methods
         Descriptive Analysis
         Content Analysis
         Thematic Analysis
         Constant Comparative Method
         Conversation Analysis
         Discourse Analysis
         Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
     Data Saturation and Trustworthiness 
     Use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software Programs
 Role of the Researcher
     Emic or Etic Research Perspectives
     Theoretical Orientation and Methodological Choices
     Training and Experience
     Disciplined Subjectivity
     Safeguarding Participant  Anonymity
     Acknowledging the Role of a Researcher
 Reporting Qualitative Research
     Thick Description of the Data
     Interpretive Themes
     Anonymity of Participants
     Visual Presentation of the Data
 Scientific Rigor in Qualitative Research
     Reflexivity
     Validity
     Credibility
     Dependability
     Confirmability and Audit Trail
     Transferability
 Key Points
 Review Questions
References

Chapter 8. Mixed-Methods Research
 Learning Outcomes
 Introduction
 Overview of Mixed-Methods Research
     Characteristics of Mixed-Method Research
         Comparing Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed-Methods Research
 Advantages and Challenges of Mixed-Method Research
 Conducting Mixed Methods Research
     Identifying the Rationale for MMR
     Selecting the Study Design within MMR
         Identifying the Sampling Strategy
     Data Collection 
     Data Analysis
     Data Interferences
 Examples of Mixed Method Studies in Audiology
     Big Data Research Using Mixed-Methods 
     Evaluating Mixed-Method Research
 Key Points
 Review Questions
References

Chapter 9. Survey Research 
 Learning Outcomes
 Defining Survey Research
     Advantages and Limitations of Survey Research 
     Purposes of Surveys
     Gathering Opinions, Beliefs, and Feelings
     Diagnostic Measure 
     Outcome Measure 
     Epidemiological Studies 
     Multi-purpose Surveys
 Study Designs in Survey Research
     Cross-sectional Surveys
     Repeated Cross-sectional Surveys
     Panel Surveys
     Survey Experiments
 Sampling and Participant Recruitment
     Sampling Methods
     Sample Size Adequacy 
         Response Rate
 Data Collection Methods
     Types of Surveys 
         Questionnaires
         Interviews 
         Mixed Mode Surveys
 Survey Administration Methods 
     Written Survey 
     Oral Survey 
     Paper and Pencil versus Electronic Survey
     First-hand versus Third-party Administration 
 Types of Questions
     Open-ended Questions
     Closed-ended Questions
     Mixture of Open-ended and Closed-ended Questions
 Response Options
     Rating versus Ranking
     Open Response Formats
     Dichotomous Responses
     Likert Response Scales
     Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)
 Missing Data and Erroneous Data 
 The Importance of Anonymity
 Considerations for Designing, Adapting, Validating or Choosing a Questionnaire
     Designing a Questionnaire 
         Conceptual Clarity
         Comprehensibility 
         Wording of Questions
         Response Formats and Scoring
         Question Sequence
         Administration Format
         Keep Analysis in Mind
         Checking Survey Quality
         Pre-testing
 Translation and Adaptation of Questionnaires 
 Validating a Questionnaire
     Validity
     Reliability
     Responsiveness
     Interpretability 
     Floor and Ceiling Effect
 Choosing a Questionnaire
     Core Outcome Set (COS)
 Approaches to Survey Data Analyses
     Preparing Data for the Analysis 
         Types of Data
         Data Structure
     Choosing a Data Analysis Method
         Analysis of Likert-scale Responses
     Data Interpretation 
         Describing Phenomenon
         Correlation versus Causality 
         Reported Behavior versus Actual Behavior
         Adequacy of Psychometric Properties 
 Sources of Bias in Survey Research
 Key Points
 Review Questions
References

Section B. Evidence-Based Practice

Chapter 10. Evidence-Based Practice
 Learning Outcomes
 Healthcare Decision Making 
 Types of Knowledge
     Traditional Knowledge
     Authority Knowledge
     Personal Knowledge
     Trial and Error Knowledge
         Research-Based Knowledge
 Hierarchy of Knowledge Types
 Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)
     A Brief History of EBP
     Definitions
     Benefits and Risks of EBP
     EBP Steps
         Step 1 – Developing and Defining Clinical Questions
         Step 2 – Search for the Best Available Research Evidence
         Step 3 –Synthesize the Evidence
         Step 4 – Implement the Evidence
         Step 5 – Evaluate the Outcomes
 Implementation Issues for EBP in Clinical Practice
     Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs)
     Acceptance and Adherence Issues
     Examples of Challenges for EBP Implementation
         Example 1 – Lack of Organizational Support
         Example 2 – Healthcare Service Reimbursement
         Example 3 – Overabundance of Available Evidence 
         Example 4 – Misuse of the Non-Peer Reviewed Evidence
 Common Myths and Misconceptions about EBP 
 Evaluating Research for EBP
 The Future of EBP
 Key Points
 Review Questions
References

Chapter 11. Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis
 Learning Outcomes
 Research Reviews in Clinical Practice
 Types of Reviews
     Narrative (or Descriptive) Review
     Scoping Review
     Systematic Review
     Review of Reviews
 Systematic Review Process 
     Requirements for a Systematic Review
     Identifying a Research Area 
     Establishing the Rationale for Reviews
     Formulating Research Questions 
     Searching and Appraising Previous Reviews 
         Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) Checklist for Systematic Reviews
         Assessing Methodological Quality of Systematic Review (AMSTER)
         Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Systematic Reviews (ROBIS)
 Scoping Search
 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
 Review Registration
 Developing the Search Strategy 
     Information Sources
     Keyword Selection
 Performing the Search and Selecting Appropriate Papers 
 Referencing Management
 Data Extraction
 Outcomes and Prioritization
 Biases
 Quality Assessment 
 Assessment of Methodological Quality 
 Assessment of Risk of Bias
 Determining Level of Evidence
 Data Synthesis
     Descriptive Synthesis
     Narrative Synthesis 
     Thematic Synthesis
     Quantitative Synthesis (Meta-analysis)
 Reporting the Review Outcomes 
 Performing a Meta-analysis
     Use of Software in Meta-analysis 
     Criteria for Performing a Quantitative Synthesis
     Assessing Appropriateness of Doing a Meta-analysis
         Principle 1: Power Analysis
         Principle 2: Examination of Confidence Interval Width
         Principle 3: Assessment of Heterogeneity 
 Publication Bias
 Summary Measures
     Statistical Models
     Odds or Risk Ratios
     Estimating Effect Sizes
 Standardization and Weighting Studies
 Subgroup Analysis
 Sensitivity Analysis
 Meta-regression
 Reporting Guidelines for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis
 Key Points
 Review Questions
References

Section C. Conducting and Disseminating Research

Chapter 12. Student-Led Research Projects
 Learning Outcomes
 Importance of Student-Led Research Projects
 Benefits of Student-Lead Research
 Elements of Student-Led Research
     Selecting the Topic
     Selecting a Mentor and Committee Members
     Conducting a Literature Review 
         Access to Full-Text
         Inter-Library Loan
     Developing the Research Proposal
         Identifying the Scope of the Research
         Defining the Research Questions 
         Writing the Research Proposal 
         Gaining the Necessary Approvals
         Involving Service Users in Research
         Gathering the Research Data
         Data Analysis and Drawing Appropriate Conclusions
         Writing and Reporting the Research Findings
     Effective Planning of the Research
         Creating a Realistic Research Plan 
         Dealing with Ongoing Challenges
         Time Management 
 Disseminating the Research Outcomes
     Examples of Published Student-Led Projects in Audiology
 Key Points
 Review Questions
References

Chapter 13. Disseminating Research Findings
 Learning Outcomes
 Importance of Scientific Findings—Dissemination
 Planning Dissemination of Scientific Findings
 Presenting Research Findings at Professional Conferences
 Scientific Publications
     Scientific Truth 
     Peer-Reviewed Publications
         Predatory “Peer Reviewed” Publications
         Publishing Negative Results
     Non-Peer Reviewed Publications
     Important Considerations When Choosing the Journal
         Scope of the Journal
         Target Audience 
         Manuscript Types and Word Limits
         Impact Factor
         Conflict of Interest
         Copyright Assignment
         Open Access
         Publication Charges
 Tips for Successful Publishing
     Invest Enough Time in the Process 
     Choose the Most Appropriate Journal
     Follow the Journal Submission Guidelines
     Use Standard Guidelines for Scientific Reporting
     Importance of the Cover Letter 
     Components of the Manuscript
     More on the Abstract
     Referencing
     Professional Copy Editing
     Authorship Order and Honorary Authorship
     Addressing Reviewers’ Concerns
 Strategies to Enhance Reach and Impact of Research
 Reviewing Others Research Work
     Benefits of Peer-Reviewing Others Work
     How to Conduct Peer-Review of Scientific Work 
 Key Points
 Review Questions
References

Index

 

 

Vinaya Manchaiah

Vinaya Manchaiah, AuD, MBA, PhD, is a Jo Mayo Endowed Professor of Speech and Hearing Sciences at the Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences at Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas. He received is BSc from the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing (AIISH), India, his MSc from the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research (ISVR), University of Southampton, UK, his clinical doctorate (AuD) from Nova Southeastern University, US, and his research doctorate (PhD) from Linköping University in Sweden. He also holds Executive MBA and a post-graduate certificate degree in teaching in higher education from Swansea University in UK. He has worked in various clinical, research, teaching, and administrative roles, although his current academic appointment centers predominantly on research. His research focuses on improving the accessibility, affordability, and outcomes of hearing loss and tinnitus by promoting self-management and use of digital technologies. His research has been funded by various organizations including the National Institutes of Health (NIH). He has published more than 130 peer-reviewed manuscripts and four books. He has received numerous awards including the prestigious Bharat Samman Award from the NRI Institute in India in 2017, Erskine fellowship from the University of Canterbury in New Zealand in 2019, and was named a Jerger Future Leader of Audiology by the American Academy of Audiology in 2016.

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Eldré W. Beukes

Eldré Beukes, PhD, is the Post-doctoral Researcher and Research Audiologist at the Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences at Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas. She received her BSc in South Africa, her MSc in Audiology from the University of Manchester and her PhD was awarded from Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. She is a clinical scientist in Audiology and was awarded the Richard May prize following her training. She received the prestigious Shapiro prize from the British Tinnitus Association for her research three years in a row (between 2017- 2019) and the Hallpike Research Prize in 2019 from the British Association of Audiological Physicians for her work involving the development and running of clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions.

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Ross J. Roeser

Ross J. Roeser, PhD holds the Lois and Howard Wolf Professorship in Pediatric Hearing in the School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences at the University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas. He is also the Director Emeritus of The University of Texas at Dallas/Callier Center for Communication Disorders in Dallas.  He is the founding Editor-in-Chief of Ear and Hearing, is currently the Editor-in-Chief Emeritus of the International Journal of Audiology and has contributed to multiple publications to the audiological literature.

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