Speech and Voice Science

Fourth Edition

Alison Behrman

Details: 517 pages, 2-Color, Softcover, 8.5" x 11"

ISBN13: 978-1-63550-322-7

© 2023 | Available

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Speech and Voice Science, Fourth Edition is the only textbook to provide comprehensive and detailed information on both voice source and vocal tract contributions to speech production. In addition, it is the only textbook to address dialectical and nonnative language differences in vowel and consonant production, bias in perception of speaker identity, and prosody (suprasegmental features) in detail. With the new edition, clinical application is integrated throughout the text.

Due to its highly readable writing style being user-friendly for all levels of students, instructors report using this book for a wide variety of courses, including undergraduate and graduate courses in acoustic phonetics, speech science, instrumentation, and voice disorders. Heavily revised and updated, this fourth edition offers multiple new resources for instructors and students to enhance classroom learning and active student participation. At the same time, this text provides flexibility to allow instructors to construct a classroom learning experience that best suits their course objectives.

Speech and Voice Science now has an accompanying workbook for students by Alison Behrman and Donald Finan!

New to the Fourth Edition

  • Sixteen new illustrations and nineteen revised illustrations, many now in color
  • New coverage of topics related to diversity, including:
    • Dialectical and nonnative language differences in vowel and consonant production and what makes all of us have an “accent” (Chapter 7—Vowels and Chapter 8—Consonants)
    • How suprasegmental features are shaped by dialect and accent (Chapter 9—Prosody)
    • Perception of speaker identity, including race/ethnicity, gender, and accent (Chapter 11– Speech Perception)
  • Increased focus on clinical application throughout each chapter, including three new sections
  • Updated Chapter 4 (Breathing) includes enhanced discussion of speech breathing and new accompanying illustrations.
  • Updated Chapter 10 (Theories of Speech Production) now includes the DIVA Model, motor learning theory, and clinical applications
  • Updated Chapter 11 (Speech Perception) now includes revised Motor Learning theory, Mirror Neurons, and clinical applications
  • Expanded guide for students on best practices for studying in Chapter 1(Introduction)

Key Features

  • A two-color interior to provide increased readability
  • Heavily illustrated, including color figures, to enhance information provided in the text
  • Forty-nine spectrogram figures provide increased clarity of key acoustic features of vowels and consonants
  • Fourteen clinical cases throughout the book to help students apply speech science principles to clinical practice
  • The text comes with access to a PluralPlus companion website with many supplementary student study aids and teaching materials. The site includes the following:
    • For students:
      • Study aids such as flashcards and review questions for each chapter
      • A speech science game for a lighthearted way to help study
      • The spectograms from chapters 7, 8 and 9 of the print book allowing students to zoom in and examine specific acoustic features.
    • For instructors:
      • Revised and updated slides for traditional classroom
      • Classroom learning activities, many focused on group work and discussion, to provide more effective learning experiences for both undergraduate and graduate students
      • Eleven laboratory assignments, using free, downloadable acoustic analysis software, to help students learn difficult concepts through experiential learning



The text covers the anatomy and source of voice as well as the vocal tract that results in speech production. Including vocal diversity, such as dialectical and nonnative language differences seen in phonemes as well as during paralinguistic features, the text provides new ways to learn how these aspects guide evaluation and treatment. The book is accompanied by a streamlined student website with study resources and answer keys. […]
The author states that the purpose of this book has arisen from a discovery that by using principles of physics and physiology in interactions with patients, we are able to answer clinical questions. The text provides just this to readers. Students can use this book to learn speech science principles in order to enhance and build their clinical skills. Readers benefit from having the book in print as well as having access to online study material that corresponds in
an easy and organized manner.
The book's target audience is undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral speech-language pathology students as well as research scientists. The book demonstrates its ability to provide readers a theoretical grounding in speech science with clinical cases and applications further enabling the readers to apply knowledge in clinical interactions. The author writes the text interweaving three professional roles: instructor, research scientist, and clinician.
A notable addition of a clinical case of accent management provides readers skilled preparation for handling these types of cases, which is an area of need for many speech-language pathologists. The book includes recommended websites to further learning. References for the chapters are conveniently located at the conclusion of each chapter. The chapter titled "Production and Perception of Consonants" is covered well; there are wave forms and spectrograms for each vowel with the preceding and following consonants. The book covers prosody well in that it hones in on why it is essential and "critical" for communication
with accompanying cited and relevant research. The appendix is a handy compilation of eight commonly used reading passages with accompanying comments to further learn what specifically each one contains, making it relevant for vocal assessment.
This book presents high-quality textual education that allows readers, whether speech-language pathology students in undergraduate or masters studies or speech language pathologists, to glean new insight into how speech and voice science is a foundation for treatment and evaluation of vocal disorders. The book is easy to navigate and well organized and provides case studies that present necessary, "real world" examples to speech science principles. The illustrations are often humorous, which keeps readers engaged while digesting new information. The website is invaluable for students to further study the material after reading the text. This book replaces the previous edition with more topics related to vocal diversity, such as dialectical and nonnative language difference and accentedness
– Doody Enterprises, Inc. (December 2021)

Clinical Cases and Applications


About the Illustrator

About the Contributor

Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 The Clinical Usefulness of Speech and Voice Science
     Scenario 1
     Scenario 2
     Scenario 3
1.2 Defining Speech Science
1.3 Advice for Students on Effective Study Techniques
     Study as Though You Are Having a Test Every Week
     Study With a Partner or Group
     Reach Beyond Memorization to Understand the Material
     Administer Self-Exams
     Stay Mindfully Present in Class
     Don’t Focus Only on the Slides!
     Read Assignments Before and After Class
     Use the Study Aids
     Understand the Reason Why Facts Are Important
     Create Diagrams and Charts
     Do Not Rely on Index Cards
     Talk It Out!
     Look Over Your Tests and Quizzes for a Pattern of Errors
     Work It Out!
     Ask the Instructor
     Make Sure That Your Study Time Is Focused Without Distractions
     Don’t Wait Until the End of the Semester to Ask Your Professor for Help!
     Advice for Synchronous or Asynchronous Online Classes

Chapter 2. Describing and Explaining Motion
2.1 Systems of Measurement
2.2 Describing Motion: Speed, Velocity, Acceleration, and Deceleration
2.3 Newton’s Laws Explain Motion
     The First Law of Motion
     The Second Law of Motion
     The Third Law of Motion
2.4 Momentum and Energy
          Energy, Work, and Power
          Kinetic and Potential Energy

2.5 Three States of Matter
     Elasticity and Stiffness
          Units of Measurement of Pressure

Chapter 3. Sound Waves
3.1 Vibration
3.2 The Nature of Waves
     Pulse Waves 
     Longitudinal Pressure Waves
3.3 Transfer of Energy in Waves
3.4 Visualizing a Sound Wave
3.5 Properties of Sound Waves
          Speed of Sound
3.6 The Perception of Sound Waves
     Perception of Intensity 
     Perception of Frequency
3.7 Pure and Complex Tones
     Power Spectra 
3.8 Behavior of Sound Waves
3.9 Resonance
     Natural Resonant Frequency 
     Standing Wave Patterns 
          Rules Governing Standing Waves 
     Forced Vibration 
     Acoustic Resonators
Recommended Internet Sites for Further Learning

Chapter 4. Breathing
Clinical Case 1: Breath-Holding Speech
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Respiration
4.3 Balloons or Boyle’s Law?
4.4 Anatomy of the Lower Airway
     The Work of Muscles 
          Agonist-Antagonist Pairs
          Muscles and Levers 

     The Muscles of Breathing
4.5 The Biomechanics of Breathing
     The Biomechanics of Tidal Breathing 
     Lung Volumes and Capacities 
     The Biomechanics of Forced Inhalation and Exhalation
4.6 The Biomechanics of Speech Breathing
     Relaxation Curve and Phonation
     Running Speech 
          Phrase Breath Groups 
     Adaptation of Speech Breathing to Variable Internal and External Demands
          Body Type
          Cognitive-Linguistic Variables
          Speech Breathing Personality
          Respiratory Demands
4.7 The Work of Breathing
     Airway Resistance
     Laminar and Turbulent Airflow 
     Elastic Resistance
4.8 Instrumentation for Measuring Breathing Kinematics
     Electromyography (EMG) 
     Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography
4.9 Clinical Application: Disorders Related to Breathing
     Symptoms and Characteristics 
     Diagnostic Strategies 
     Therapeutic Approaches
Recommended Internet Sites for Further Learning

Chapter 5. Phonation I: Basic Voice Science
Clinical Case 2: Running Out of Breath
5.1 Overview
5.2 Anatomy of the Larynx
     Structural Framework
     Laryngeal Membranes and Cavities 
     Three Functions of the Larynx 
     Laryngeal Muscles
          Intrinsic Muscles 
          Extrinsic Muscles

     The Vocal Folds
          Structural Overview 
          Lamina Propria 

     Mechanical Layers 
     Cricothyroid Joints 
     Cricoarytenoid Joints
     Blood Supply to the Larynx and Lymphatic Drainage
5.3 Neural Control of Phonation
     Central Motor Control 
     Peripheral Motor Neural Control and Brainstem Nuclei 
     Peripheral Sensory Control and Brainstem Nuclei
5.4 Theories of Voice Production
     The Bernoulli Effect
     The Myoelastic-Aerodynamic Theory
5.5 Biomechanics of Vocal Fold Vibration
     Viscoelastic Component
     Vertical Phase Difference: The Mucosal Wave
     The Importance of Vocal Fold Closure 
     Glottal Volume Velocity 
     Laryngeal Airway Resistance 
     Phonation Threshold Pressure 
     Phonation Onset
5.6 Biomechanical Stress-Strain Properties of Vocal Fold Tissues
5.7 Physiology of Phonatory Control
     Fundamental Frequency (ƒo)
          Natural Resonance of the Vocal Folds 
          Cover-Dominant Vibration 
          Body Plus Cover Vibration 
          Lung Pressure in the Regulation of ƒo 
          Differential Control of ƒo : Evidence From EMG Data 

     Control of Intensity
     Auditory Feedback of Control of ƒo and Intensity 
     Biomechanical Forces During Phonation
5.8 Voice Quality
5.9 Clinical Application: Disorders Related to Voice Production
     Symptoms and Characteristics 
     Diagnostic Strategies 
     Therapeutic Approaches
Recommended Internet Sites for Further Learning

Chapter 6. Phonation II: Measurement and Instrumentation
Clinical Case 3: Camp Voice
6.1 Measurement of ƒo and Intensity
     ƒo Measures 
     Intensity Measures 
     Voice Range Profile (VRP)
6.2 Measurement of Phonatory Aerodynamics
     Airflow and Lung Pressure 
          Vocal Efficiency
          S/Z Ratio
          Maximum Phonation Time
          Phonation Quotient
6.3 Instrumentation for Exploring the Dynamics of the Vocal Folds
     High-Speed Laryngeal Imaging 
     Videokymography (VKG) 
     Photoglottography (PGG) 
     Electroglottography (EGG) 
     Open Quotient (OQ), Speed Quotient (SQ), and Contact Quotient (CQ
6.4 Vocal Registers
     Modal Register
     Vocal Fry 
Clinical Case 4: Persistent Mutational Falsetto
Recommended Internet Sites for Further Learning

Chapter 7. The Production and Perception of Vowels
Clinical Case 5: Accent Management
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Acoustic Theory of Speech Production
     Acoustic Characteristics of the Source
     The Vocal Tract Transfer Function 
     Acoustic Characteristics of Lip Radiation 
     Resonance and Standing Waves
7.3 Vowels
     Vocal Tract Constrictions and Formant Frequencies
          First Formant Frequency (F1) 
          Second Formant Frequency (F2) 
          Third Formant Frequency (F3) 

     The Traditional Vowel Quadrilateral
     Vowel Quality and Articulatory Posture 
     Acoustic Representation of Vowel Quality 
     Resonating Cavities of the Vocal Tract 
     Vowel Formant Normative Data 
     Tense-Lax Vowel Quality and Inherent Duration 
     Rhotacized Vowel Quality 
     Intrinsic Pitch of Vowels
7.4 Language and Dialect Influences on Vowel Production
     Accentedness — Everyone Has an Accent!
7.5 The Vocal Tract as a Regulator of Intensity
     Harmonic Structure, Energy Loss, and Near-Periodicity 
     Revisiting the Voice Range Profile 
          Singer’s Formant and Formant Tuning
          Speaker’s Formant

7.6 Acoustic Filters
7.7 Instrumentation for Measuring Vocal Tract Acoustics
     Sound Spectrography
          Narrowband and Wideband Spectrograms
          Exploring Spectrograms
          Visualizing Language and Dialectical Vowel Differences
          Nearly Periodic Voice Source
          Voiceprints: Voice Science or Science Fiction? 
     Quantitative Spectral Measures
          Long-Term Average Spectrum
          Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio
          Cepstral Measures
     Inverse Filtering
7.8 Vocal Tract Imaging: Current Research and Future Trends
     ​​​​​​​Conventional Radiography (X-rays)
     Computed Tomography (CT) 
     Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 
Clinical Case 6: Ataxic Dysarthria
Recommended Internet Sites for Further Learning

Chapter 8. The Production and Perception of Consonants
Clinical Case 7: Facial Nerve Trauma
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Three Sources of Speech Sounds
8.3 Phonetic Description of Consonants
     Place of Articulation 
     Manner of Articulation
8.4 Acoustic Representation of Consonants
          Stop Gap
     ​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​Release Burst
     ​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​Aspiration
     ​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​Voice Onset Time
     ​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​Formant Transitions
     ​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​Released and Unreleased Stops
     ​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​Glottal Stop 
          Glides (Semivowels) 

          Vowel Nasalization 
8.5 Clinical Application: Speech Sound Disorders
     Symptoms and Characteristics 
     ​​​​​​​Diagnostic Strategies
     Therapeutic Strategies
8.6 Language and Dialect Influences on Consonant Production
8.7 Instrumentation and Measurement of Vocal Tract Aerodynamics
     ​​​​​​​Intraoral Air Pressure
     Nasal Airflow and Acoustics 
          Nasal Airflow
     ​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​Nasalance
8.8 Instrumentation for Measuring Articulation
     X-ray Microbeam
     Electromagnetic Midsagittal Articulography (EMMA) 
     Optoelectronic Tracking 
     Strain Gauges 
Clinical Case 6: Articulation Errors
Recommended Internet Sites for Further Learning

Chapter 9. Prosody
Clinical Case 9: Parkinson’s Disease
9.1 Introduction to Prosody
9.2 Basic Building Blocks of Prosody
     Intonation (ƒo Contour)
     Timing (Duration and Juncture) 
     Loudness (Intensity Contour)
9.3 Syllabic Stress and Prominence
9.4 Speech Rhythm
     Temporal Measurement of Rhythm
9.5 Accentedness and Prosody
9.6 In Summary of Prosody
Clinical Case 10: Gender-Diverse Speech and Voice

Chapter 10. Theories and Models of Speech Production
Clinical Case 11: Spastic Cerebral Palsy
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Theories and Models
10.3 Theoretical Issues for Consideration
     Degrees of Freedom
          Motor Programs
     Output Targets
     Serial Ordering and Sensory Feedback
     Unit of Analysis
10.4 Models of Speech Production
     Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) 
     Dynamical Systems 
          Spatiotemporal Organization
     Connectionist Models
10.5 Investigational Considerations
     Speaking Task
     Perturbation Studies
10.6 Motor Learning Principles​​​​​​​
10.7 Language and Speech
Clinical Case 12: Oral Motor Exercises
Recommended Internet Sites for Further Learning

Chapter 11. Theories of Speech Perception
Clinical Case 13: Visual Feedback
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Topics in Speech Perception
     Lack of Invariance
     Unit of Analysis Revisited
     Lack of Segmentation
     Perceptual Normalization
     Specialized Perception of Speech
          Duplex Perception
          The McGurk Effect

     Contextual Effect
11.3 Theories of Speech Perception
     Updated Motor Theory of Speech Perception 
          ​​​​​​​Mirror Neurons
     Acoustic Landmarks and Distinctive Features
11.4 What Babies Can Tell Us About Perception
     Native Language Magnet Theory-Expanded
11.5 Perception of Speaker Identity​​​​​​​
     Indexical Properties 
     Sex, Gender, and Indexical Properties 
     Accentedness and Indexical Properties 
     Race and Ethnicity and Indexical Propert
Clinical Case 14: Auditory Feedback
Recommended Internet Sites for Further Learning

Chapter 12. Instrumentation
Donald Finan

12.1 Introduction to Measurement
12.2 Basic Principles of Measurement​​​​​​​
     Error in Measurement 
     It’s Electric!
12.3 Sensors for Capturing Speech
12.4 Microphones
     Microphone Designs
     Microphone Transducer Types 
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​     Microphone Performance Characteristics
​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​Frequency Response
​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​Sensitivity and Dynamic Range
​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​Adequate Microphone Performance for Speech Analysis
12.5 Amplification
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​     Amplifier Performance Characteristics
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​     Gain
​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​     ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​     Frequency Response
          Dynamic Range

     Amplifier Compatibility
12.6 Making the Connection
12.7 Recording Environment
     Ambient Acoustic Noise
     Electromagnetic Interference
12.8 Data Acquisition: Let’s Get Digital
     Sampling: Time Representation
     Quantization: Amplitude Representation
          Frequency-Based Error: Aliasing
          Amplitude-Based Error: Quantization Noise and Peak Clipping

12.9 Data Storage
12.10 Balancing Cost, Complexity, and Accuracy in Digital Data Acquisition
12.11 Best Practices for the Use of Instrumentation
     Sensor Performance and Use
     Preamplifier Performance and Use
     Data Acquisition System Performance and Use
12.12 Let’s Wrap This Thing Up!

Appendix A. Measurement Conversions
Appendix B. Reading Passages
Appendix C. Frequencies of the Musical Scale (A4 = 440 Hz)
Appendix D. The International Phonetic Alphabet




Alison Behrman

Alison Behrman, PhD, CCC-SLP, is Associate Professor in the Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences at Lehman College/City University of New York. She received her MA in Speech-Language Pathology from New York University, and her PhD in speech physiology from Columbia University. Dr. Behrman has been the Principal Investigator of two grants from the National Instutites of Health and she was a recipient of the ASHA Foundation’s 2016 Clinical Research Grant. Dr. Behrman is a member of the scientific advisory board of Parkinson Voice Project (Richardson, Texas), a nonprofit treatment center that developed SPEAK OUT!® and The LOUD Crowd® to improve the communication of people with Parkinson’s disease. She is an avid tennis player.

Learn More

Speech and Voice Science, Fourth Edition comes with access to supplementary student and instructor materials on a PluralPlus companion website.


To access the student materials, you must register on the companion website and log in using the access code printed on the inside front cover of your book.


To access the instructor materials, you must contact Plural Publishing, Inc. to be verified as an instructor and receive your access code.

            Email: instructormaterials@pluralpublishing.com

            Tel: 866-758-7251 (toll free) or 858-492-1555

*Note for students: If you have purchased this textbook used or have rented it, your access code will not work if it was already redeemed by the original buyer of the book. Plural Publishing does not offer replacement access codes for used or rented textbooks.

Announcement: The study questions in Chapter 10 of the textbook were revised after the book was published. The corrected list of the study questions match the updated order of the chapter and the revisions made by the author. 

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