Surgical and Medical Management of Diseases of the Thyroid and Parathyroid

First Edition

Ashok R. Shaha, Cherie-Ann Nathan, Jyotika K. Fernandes, Chris de Souza, Shashank R. Joshi

Details: Ebook, 755 pages, Full Color

ISBN13: 978-1-59756-854-8

© 2020 | Available

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The Surgical and Medical Management of Diseases of the Thyroid and Parathyroid eBook features authoritative, in-depth, and controversial issues of diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid in a clear and balanced manner. It covers the entire spectrum of diseases as well as the array of problems faced by medical personnel dealing with them. Many practitioners have to refer to multiple books for answers to their questions because the discipline is changing so rapidly. The basic sciences of diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid are complex, but this text makes them easy to understand. Issues like when to use a PET scan and molecular biology are given clarity.

This unique resource delivers a clear, concise but comprehensive text that offers answers to the universal problems that endocrinologists, endocrine surgeons, radiologists and histopathologists face. It contains the most up-to-date material regarding the complex issues of these diseases through the lenses of medical (endocrinological), surgical, and histopathological disciplines. It is written for postgraduate otolaryngologists, endocrinologists, endocrine surgeons, and general surgeons interested in the field.

Key Features

  • Interdisciplinary
  • Authoritative
  • Practical with best practice guidelines

About the Editors

Section I. Introduction

Chapter 1. Anatomy and Development of Hypothalamic Pituitary Thyroid Axis
Shashank R. Joshi, Jimit Vadgama, and Nikita Srinivasan

Chapter 2. Anatomy and Pathology of Thyrotrophs
Shashank R. Joshi and Nikita Srinivasan

Chapter 3. Thyroid Hormone Synthesis and Transport
Pramod Gandhi and Parimal Tayde

Chapter 4. Thyroglobulin Structure, Function and Biosynthesis
Shashank R. Joshi and Nikita Srinivasan

Chapter 5. Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Metabolism
Emma Jakoi

Chapter 6. Laboratory Assessment of Thyroid Function
Shashank R. Joshi

Chapter 7. Imaging of the Thyroid in Health and Disease
Jeffrey Harris Henderson and Brittany Bohinc Henderson

Chapter 8. Pathology of Thyroid Neoplasms
Shubhada Kane and Neha Mittal

Section II. Benign Thyroid Disease

Chapter 9. Thyroid Disorders in Pregnancy
Jagdeesh Ullal and Joseph A. Aloi

Chapter 10. Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management
David C. Lieb and Joseph A. Aloi

Chapter 11. Hypothyroidism: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management
Maria Papaleontiou and Nazanene H. Esfandiari

Chapter 12. Subacute, Postpartum, and Silent Thyroiditis
Morgan Jones and Jyotika K. Fernandes

Chapter 13. Thyroid Emergencies
Rashi Agarwal and Katherine A. Lewis

Chapter 14. Nontoxic Multinodular Goiter
Gloria Ortiz and Sanjay Mediwala

Chapter 15. Thyroid Nodules: Work-Up and Modern Concepts
Jeffrey Harris Henderson and Brittany Bohinc Henderson

Chapter 16. Surgical Anatomy of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
Madan Kapre and Neeti Kapre Gupta

Chapter 17. Physical Examination of the Thyroid Gland
Madan Kapre and Neeti Kapre Gupta

Chapter 18. Thyroid Cancer Genetics
Thomas E. Heineman, Travis L. Shiba, and Maie St. John

Chapter 19. Proliferation, Clonality, and Autonomy of Thyroid Lesions
Munita Menon

Section III. Preoperative Evaluation

Chapter 20. FNAC for Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders
Uma P. Chaturvedi, Raji T. Naidu, Prachi R. Gaddam, and Preeti Dhingra

Chapter 21. Ultrasound of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
Ashita Rastogi and Supreeta Arya

Chapter 22. LASER and Radiofrequency Treatment of Thyroid Nodules and Parathyroid Adenoma
Pankaj Chaturvedi and Abhishek Vaidya

Section IV. Thyroid Neoplasia

Chapter 23. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Robert W.A. Hone and Iain J. Nixon

Chapter 24. Management of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma
Robert L. Witt

Chapter 25. Post-Operative Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Fernanda Vaisman and R. Michael Tuttle

Chapter 26. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer and Thyroid Lymphoma
Steven Anderson and James Paul O’Neill

Chapter 27. Sporadic Medullary Thyroid Microcarcinoma
Kendall J. Keck and James R. Howe

Chapter 28. Syndromic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: MEN 2A and MEN 2B
Mark Lee, Steven G. Waguespack, Paul H. Graham, Mimi I. Hu, and Mark E. Zafereo

Chapter 29. Hurthle Cell Neoplasms
Jennifer R. Cracchiolo and Ashok R. Shaha

Chapter 30. Thyroid Cancer in Children: A Comprehensive Overview
Siobhan T. Pittock and Geoffrey B. Thompson

Chapter 31. Radiation Induced Thyroid Cancer
Yogesh More, Manjiri Gupte, and Shaikh Irfan Basha

Chapter 32. Surgery for Locally Advanced Infiltrating Thyroid Cancer Involving the Larynx and Trachea
Kathryn M. Van Abel and Daniel L. Price

Chapter 33. Central Compartment Dissection
Ameya Asarkar, Cherie-Ann Nathan, Ashok R. Shaha, and Vikas Mehta

Chapter 34. Lateral Neck Dissection and Technique
Kelley Michele Malloy and Jayne Ryder Stevens

Chapter 35. Medullary Thyroid Cancer
A.I. Kaleva, Ashok R. Shaha, and Iain J. Nixon

Chapter 36. Postoperative Radioiodine Ablation and Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Somali Gavane, Bae P. Chu and Ravinder K. Grewal

Chapter 37. External Beam Radiation in Treatment of Thyroid Cancer
Amy J. Xu, Nancy Y. Lee and C. Jillian Tsai

Chapter 38. Revision Thyroid Surgery for Recurrent Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Nick Lilic, Iain J. Nixon, and Ashok R. Shaha

Chapter 39. Medical Treatment of Metastatic Thyroid Cancer
Kacey B. Wanland, Eiman Y. Ibrahim, and Naifa L. Busaidy

Chapter 40. Positron Emission Tomography for Thyroid Disorders
Sonia Mahajan and Ravinder K. Grewal

Chapter 41. Thyroid Surgery
Shorook Na'ara and Ziv Gil

Chapter 42. New Innovations in Thyroid Surgery: Endoscopic and Robotic Surgical Techniques
Michael C. Singer

Chapter 43. Long-Term Follow-Up of Thyroid Cancer Patients
Fernanda Vaisman and R. Michael Tuttle

Chapter 44. Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Ectopic Thyroid
Prathamesh Pai and Vidisha Tuljapurkar

Chapter 45. Prognostic Factors for Thyroid Carcinoma
Yasuhiro Ito and Akira Miyauchi

Section V. The Parathyroids

Chapter 46. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Indications for Surgery and Preoperative Investigations
Steven N. Levine and Joshua D. Maier

Chapter 47. Preoperative Localization of Parathyroid Adenoma
Vibushitha Narendra and Surender K. Arora

Chapter 48. Principles of Parathyroid Surgery
Matthew D. Cox, Kurt L. Nelson, and Brendan C. Stack, Jr.

Chapter 49. Intraoperative Parathyroid Hormone
Vikas Mehta, Cherie-Ann Nathan, and Ashok R. Shaha

Chapter 50. Surgical Management of Multigland Parathyroid Disease
William S. Duke and David J. Terris

Chapter 51. The Pre-and Post-Operative Medical Management of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
Adrian P. Abreo and Kenneth Abreo

Chapter 52. Revision Surgery for Sporadic Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Madan Kapre

Chapter 53. Cancer of the Parathyroid Glands
Oluwafunmilola T. Okuyemi and Nitin A. Pagedar

Chapter 54. Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima, and Thyroid Cancer: Lessons Learned
Daniel Yafit and Dan M. Fliss

Chapter 55. Bilateral Parathyroidectomy for Multiglandular Disease
Lourdes Quintanilla-Deck and Maisie Shindo


Ashok R. Shaha

Ashok R. Shaha, MD, FACS is an Attending Surgeon on the Head and Neck Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Jatin P. Shah Chair in Head and Neck Surgery, and Professor of Surgery at Cornell University Medical College, New York. Dr. Shaha completed his surgical training in Baroda, India and worked as a House Surgeon at Tata Memorial Hospital, where he developed an interest in head and neck surgical oncology. After his arrival at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in 1975, Dr. Shaha did a surgical oncology fellowship and subsequently completed his surgical training at Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York. Dr. Shaha returned to Memorial Hospital in 1981 as a Fellow in Head and Neck Surgery. He joined the Department of Surgery at Downstate Medical Center in 1982 as a Head and Neck Surgeon, rising to the rank of Professor of Surgery in 1992. During this period, he was also Chief of Head and Neck Surgery at King's County, Brooklyn VA Hospital and University Hospital. In August of 1993, Dr. Shaha moved to Sloan Kettering.

During his post-graduate training, Dr. Shaha was awarded several gold medals and was given the Golden Apple Teaching Award at Downstate Medical Center. Other awards include: Faculty Member of the AOA Honor Medical Society, the Outstanding Teacher Award at Memorial Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center in 1996, the Honor Award from the American Academy of Otolaryngology/ Head and Neck Surgery, and being named Visiting Professor of the Society of Head and Neck Surgeons in 1997 and 1998. Dr. Shaha has been honored by visiting professorships at University of Santa Tomas, Manila, and Sun Yat-Sen University, Guang Zhou, China. He has been actively involved in local and national head and neck societies, as well as having been President of the New York Head and Neck Society, the American Society for Surgeons of Indian Origin, and the Brooklyn Surgical Society, and was co-president of the American Head and Neck Society, 1998–1999, and president of the New York Cancer Society, 1999–2000 and the New York Surgical Society, 2004–2005. He is a member of many scientific organizations and serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Surgical Oncology, Head and Neck, Annals of Surgical Oncology, Brazilian Journal of Surgery, and Journal of Clinical Oncology. He is an honorary member of the Brazilian College of Surgeons, the Cuban Surgical Society, Association of Surgeons of India, the Korean Head and Neck Society, Latin Head and Neck Society, Panamanian Society of Oncology, Chilean College of Surgeons, and Costa Rican Endocrine Society, and was the Program Chairman for the Fifth International Head and Neck Oncology Meeting in San Francisco (2000), and Conference Chairman for the Sixth International Head and Neck Meeting in 2004. Recently Dr. Shaha was the recipient of the Distinguished Service Award by the American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery and President of the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons, and was elected to the American Surgical Association. In July 2016, he delivered the Hayes Martin Lecture, and has served on the steering committee for World Congress in Thyroid Cancer.

Dr. Shaha has been academically active at national and international meetings, with approximately 650 papers, 540 of which are peer-reviewed (Pubmed and Scopus). His curriculum vitae includes 150 published abstracts, 63 posters, and 45 scientific exhibits. He has delivered more than 2,000 presentations nationally and internationally. His research interests include tracheal reconstruction and an experimental model of tracheomalacia and thyroid cancer. He has been actively involved in the training of head and neck fellows nationally and was chairman of the Advanced Training Council for head and neck fellowship in the United States. Dr. Shaha has dedicated his professional career to the training of medical students and residents and has developed a preceptorship program at Cornell University Medical College in head and neck training for medical students. He was Chairman of the Advanced Training Council for Head and Neck Oncology Fellowships in the United States for ten years and recipient of the Distinguished Service Award by the Head and Neck Society twice.

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Cherie-Ann Nathan

Cherie-Ann Nathan, MD, FACS, is the Jack Pou Endowed Professor and Chairman of the Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery at LSU-Health in Shreveport. She is also Director of Head and Neck Oncologic Surgery and Research at the Feist-Weiller Cancer Center. She completed her Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery residency and head and neck fellowship in 1995 at University of California, San Diego. She was a post-doctoral fellow at Johns Hopkins where she started her research career. Following her fellowship, she began her academic career at LSU-Health Sciences Center , Shreveport.

Her passion to improve outcomes for patients with head and neck cancer was the reason she moved from Mumbai India, where she went to medical school. She is a Surgeon-Scientist that maintains a busy practice treating head and neck cancer, thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland tumors and she leads an active research team. The National Cancer Institute has funded her translational research since 2000 and her focus is on targeted therapy for head and neck patients. She is recognized nationally and internationally for her seminal work on molecular analysis of surgical margins. She has pioneered multi-institutional clinical trials using mTOR inhibitors in HNSCC patients with both Wyeth and Novartis. She has also received NIH funding for chemoprevention of cancer with curcumin and has a patent for a curcumin chewing gum. Her new RO1 on Targeting the FGFR-2 pathway for cutaneous SCC holds potential for transplant patients with aggressive cSCC. She has published extensively, has over 180 publications in peer-reviewed journals, and has authored multiple textbooks and encyclopedia chapters.

Dr. Nathan is currently the President-Elect of the American Head and Neck Society. She serves on many National committees some of which include the NCI Steering committee, the American Cancer Society-CDC HPV Steering Committee, Executive board of directors for the Head and Neck Cancer Alliance, Council Member for the Society of University Otolaryngology, and the Larynx Preservation Guideline Panel. She is currently co-President of the ASTRO-ASCO Multidisciplinary meeting and Secretary Treasurer of the Association of Academic Depts. of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery. She has served on the Nominating committee for the American Academy of Otolaryngology-HNS Program and is the Head & Neck CORE grants research leader. She is also Associate editor for “Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology”. At the local level she is active, having been on the board of directors for Shreveport Medical Society, Disaster Reform committee and the Science Museum.

The Shreveport-Bossier Commerce Department awarded her the Athena Award for community service and she received the Leonard Tow Humanism award from the Arnold Gold Foundation. The Board of Regents in Louisiana established the “Cherie-Ann Nathan Endowed Professorship in Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery” initiated by grateful patients to honor her dedication and expertise.

Dr. Nathan is married to pulmonary and critical care physician Raghu Nathan and they have two boys Sean and Neil. Her favorite hobby was to perform with the "Nathan Family Trio" to raise money for the Arts and Cancer research in Shreveport.

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Jyotika K. Fernandes

Jyotika K. Fernandes, MD, MBBS is currently Professor in Internal Medicine—Endocrine Division at the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (MUSC) South Carolina. She is also Chief of the Endocrine Section at the Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston. Dr. Fernandes completed her early medical training in India — MBBS from Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, India and MD Medicine at PGIMER (Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research), Chandigarh, India.
After her move to the United States, she did her internship at Mayo Clinic Rochester, and finished her residency at University of Texas, Houston. This was followed by a joint endocrine fellowship at Baylor College of Medicine and The MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Her clinical interest is endocrine neoplasias and she leads a Multidisciplinary Endocrine Neoplasia Clinic at the Hollings Cancer Center at MUSC. The Multidisciplinary Endocrine Neoplasia Clinic comprises specialists from Endocrinology, Endocrine Surgery, Head and Neck Surgery, Neurosurgery, Radiation, and Medical Oncology. Dr. Fernandes is actively involved in endocrine medical education and mentorship of the training fellows and residents at the Medical University and the VA hospital. She has authored several publications in peer-reviewed journals and is the lead investigator in several NIH and pharmaceutical trials.

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Chris de Souza

Chris de Souza MS, DORL, DNB, FACS, FRCS trained at the University of Minnesota with Dr. Michael Paparella, and completed his externship in otology and neurotology with Dr. Michael Glasscock and Dr. C. Gary Jackson at Baptist Hospital in Nashville, Tennessee. He furthered his training in India and was given the gold medal in the DORL exam from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Mumbai, India. In 1995, Dr. de Souza was the second person in the world to be awarded the Orbit Silver Medal for his work on the nose, paranasal sinuses, and skull base. He was appointed visiting assistant professor of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the State University of New York, Brooklyn and also at the Louisiana State University Health Science Center, Shreveport, where he has conducted temporal bone surgery workshops. He has held these appointments for the past 16 years. Dr. de Souza has published extensively in internationally peer-reviewed journals and several of his publications are considered landmark papers. He has published 18 postgraduate ENT medical textbooks in the United States, Germany, and India. Currently, he is editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery. Dr. de Souza's current clinical appointments include senior ENT consultant at Lilavati Hospital, Tata Memorial Hospital, Holy Family Hospital, and the Holy Spirit Hospital in Mumbai, India, and he is also the coordinator for implantable hearing devices in children and adults at Holy Family Hospital.

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Shashank R. Joshi

Shashank R. Joshi, MD, DM, FRCP, FACE, FACP, FICP is the President, API (Association of Physicians of India), President of Indian Academy of Diabetes, and Past President of RSSDI (Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India). He is also an endocrinologist at Lilavati and Bhatia Hospitals. He is on the faculty at Grant Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals in Endocrinology. Dr. Joshi is a practicing endocrinologist and diabetologist who has topped all years of MBBS, MD, and DM with Gold Medals. He is a Fellow of the American College of Endocrinology, American College of Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians (Glasgow and Edinburgh). He has more than 600 research publications to his credit. He is the Hon. Emeritus Editor of JAPI (Journal of The Association of Physicians of India), and former editor of the Indian Journal of Obesity, Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, and Indian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics as well as several other leading medical journals. He is affiliated with several leading hospitals, including Lilavati and Bhatia Hospitals, Association of Advancement for Research in Obesity, IASO Affiliate), Chapter Chair (India), and American Association of Clinical Endocrinology (AACE). He is visiting faculty to several Indian and international universities. Dr. Joshi is actively involved with evidence-based work in endocrinology including diabetes, obesity, thyroid, osteoporosis, and growth. He was awarded “International Clinician of the Year 2012” by the American College of Endocrinology. He has been conferred “Padma Shri” in 2014 by the Government of India.

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